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Introduction to Chemistry Syllabus for the Fall Semester 1999: DAYTONA BEACH COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Fred Fathi

fathifamily@msn.com
Daytona Beach Community College
Daytona Beach, FL 32114
United States



My Educational Philosophy

My educational philosophy is to provide a solid foundation in chemistry and physical science that I teach to my students. In order to achieve this goal, I work with the students one on one, wherever possible. I motivate them and provide them with the necessary tools of learning, such as handouts and computer assisted instructional materials. My approach to teaching is more as a facilitator of learning than traditional approach of lectures. In order to achieve this goal, I provide opportunities to students to participate in classroom discussions routinely. The ultimate goal of my educational philosophy is to create a generation of students who will turn out to be good citizens with knowledge and service to this society at large. ****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** DAYTONA BEACH COMMUNITY COLLEGE SCIENCE DEPARTMENT INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY (CHM 1025)

FALL SEMESTER, 1999

LECTURER: Mr. Fred Fathi Office: Room 128 Science Building Phone: 255-8131 Ext. 2641 E-mail: fathif@dbcc.cc.fl.us Web Site: http://members.tripod.com/~fredfathi/index.html

MATERIALS: Introductory Chemistry, Second Edition, Corwin "Introduction to Chemistry Laboratory Manual", Swanson "Lecture Notes for Introduction to Chemistry", Swanson A calculator

CHM 1025, Introduction to Chemistry, is a survey course designed particularly for those students needing to meet a basic science requirement or desiring a preparatory course for CHM 1045, 1046, and 2205. The course meets for four hours each week; three hours of lecture and one hour of recitation (laboratory). Please be sure you are enrolled in the recitation portion of the course.

The pre/co-requisite for this course is Intermediate Algebra (MAT 1033).

COMMENTS:

I. ATTENDANCE: In the study of chemistry, it is important to attend all the lectures, since the material of one lecture is built upon all preceding lectures. If you unavoidably miss a lecture, please obtain the notes from a classmate. Attendance will be taken so that the instructor will become familiar with the students. Attendance may also be used to decide on borderline grade situations at the end of the semester.

II. COURSE COMPONENT WEIGHTS: Your grade in this course is determined on the basis of the following:

Hour exams 50% Text Book Problem Sets 10% Recitation Experiments 20% Final Exam 20%

III. COURSE COMPONENTS: A. EXAMS: All examinations administered in CHM 1025 are of the closed book type. If any charts or tables are required, they will be provided by the instructor; however, you are permitted the use of a calculator in the problem solving portion of these exercises. No other materials are permitted to be used for the exam. A total of four multiple-choice, one-hour exams will be given during the term (see Exam Schedule). The exams are not cumulative in nature, but cover only the lecture material after the preceding exam. The lowest exam grade (or missed exam) will be dropped.

B. TEXT BOOK PROBLEM SETS: At the completion of each chapter in lecture, you should, after appropriate studying, complete the problem sets of respective chapters.

C. RECITATION EXPERIMENTS: Your participation in a recitation section is an important part of CHM 1025. If your schedule does not indicate that you have been assigned to one of the CHM 1025L recitation sections, please see the instructor. Recitation sections meet once a week. This time is spent performing experiments that pertain to the lecture material. Prior to your recitation section you are responsible for reviewing the experiment that will be performed. The recitation instructor will discuss the experiment before it is performed. A total of 12 experiments will be performed.

D. FINAL EXAM:

A cumulative final exam will be given on the last day of classes. Since the final Exam is a requirement of the course a missed final exam will result in an Incomplete for the course.

E. FINAL GRADE:

At the end of the semester all the numerical grades will be totaled, averaged, and a final letter grade assigned on the following basis:

A 100-90 B+ 89-85 B 84-80 C+ 79-75 C 74-70 D+ 69-65 D 64-60 F 59 and below

Sample Grade Calculation:

Grade Value Points

Exam I 82 x 0.10 = 8.2

Exam II 88 x 0.10 = 8.8

Exam III 75 x 0.10 = 7.5

Exam IV Drop Grade

Exam V 82 x 0.10 = 8.2

Exam VI 82 x 0.10 = 8.2

Problems 100 x 0.10 = 10.0

Lab 91 x 0.20 = 18.2

Final 80 x 0.20 = 16.0

Total 85.1

This student would therefore get a B+ in the course.

If a student wishes to withdraw or audit the course, they must do so by October 15. The instructor will not allow a student to audit after that date.

IV. HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF CHEMISTRY:

A. Attend all the lectures and take thorough notes.

B. Read your textbook and use its explanations to enhance your lecture notes.

C. Study groups of 3 or 4 students can be effective for the exchange of chemical concepts.

D. A free tutoring service is available for CHM 1025. Sign-up should be done in the Special Services Office in Building 2, Room 101 and 104

E. A set of recommended problems for each chapter (see the list later in the syllabus) may be done to test the skills you've developed.

F. Work the Review Question sets for each of the chapters.

V. OFFICE HOURS: Finally, the instructor urges you to take advantage of his office hours. It is his pleasure to serve you and he is eager for you to utilize this time in a positive and constructive way , which will promote good learning and assure you of some measure of success in this course.

CHEMISTRY 1025 LECTURE - RECITATION SCHEDULE FALL, 1998

The following timetable is submitted as a study guide and will be followed as reasonably as possible. Minor changes may be made occasionally.

WEEK TEXT LECTURE OF CHAPT NOTES TOPIC EXPERIMENT

8/23 4 2 Matter and Energy Lecture on Lab Techniques

8/30 2 3 Scientific Measurements Exp. 1

_____________________________________________________________________

9/7 3 4 Metric System Exp. 2

9/13 5 5 Models of the Atom Exp. 3 ____________________________________________________________________________ 9/20 6 6 The Periodic Table Exp. 4

_____________________________________________________________________

9/27 7 7 Language of Chemistry Exp. 5 Part 1

10/4 8 8 Chemical Reactions Exp. 5 Part 2 _____________________________________________________________________

10/11 9 9 The Mole Concept Exp. 6

10/18 10 10 Stoichiometry Exp. 7 _____________________________________________________________________

10/25 12 12 Chemical Bonding Exp. 9

11/1 13 13 Liquids and Solids Exp. 10

_____________________________________________________________________

11/8 14 14 Solutions Exp. 11

11/15 15 15 Acids and Bases

11/22 17 16 Oxidation & Reduction Exp. 12

12/29 18 17 Nuclear Chemistry Make up Exp.

12/14 FINAL EXAM

EXAM SCHEDULE

Textbook Lecture Notes Computer Lessons

Exam I Chapter 4,2,3 2,3,4 4,2,3

Exam II Chapter 5,6 5,6 5,6

Exam III Chapter 7,8,9 7,8,9 7,8,9

Exam IV Chapter 10,11 10,11 10,11

Exam V Chapter 12,13 12,13 12,13

Exam VI Chapter 14,15 14,15 14,15

Final Exam Chapter 2-15 2-17 17,18 17,18

CHAPTER PROBLEMS TWO2,4,6,8,10,14,16,18,20,22,24,26,38,40,42,56,62,64,80,84,90,92 THREE 4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,22,24,26,28,38,40,46, 48,50,54,56,74,76,78,82,88 FOUR 2,4,8,12,14,18,20,22,24,26,28,30,44,46,48,50,52,54,56,58,64,66,68,70,82,86,92 FIVE 2,8,12,14,16,18,20,22,26,40,42,44,50,54,56,58,62,64,66,70,72,76,78,80,90,98 SIX 6,8,10,18,20,24,28,30,32,36,44,48,50,54,56,58,60,62,64,66,68,70,72,74,76,78,80,84,88,90,92 SEVEN 2,4,6,8,12,14(d),16(a,c),18,20,22,24,26,34(a,c),36(a,c),42(a),44,46,48,52(a),60,62,70(a,b,c),72 EIGHT 2,6,10,12,16,20,22,24,26,28,30,32,34,36,38,40,42,48,50,52,54,60,62,64,66,68,70,72,74,76,78,80,82,84,86,88 NINE 2,4,6,10,12,14,16,18,28,32,34,38,40,42,54,56,58,60,66,70,78 TEN 2,8,10,12,20,22,24,26,28,30,34,36,38,40,48,76,78,80,84,88 ELEVEN 4,6,10,12,14,18,20,24,26,30,32,34,36,38,40,42,48,50,54,60,64,66,68,70,72,76,78,82 TWELVE 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22,24,26,28,32,34,36,38,40,44,46,48,50,52,54,56,58,68,70,72,74,76,78,80,82,84,86,88,90,94,100 THIRTEEN 2,6,8,10,12,18,20,22,24,32,34,36,38,42,44,46,50,52,54,56,86 FOURTEEN 2,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,24,26,36,40,42,44,48,50,52,54,60,62,64,78,80,84,86,88 FIFTEEN 2,4,6,12,14,16,18,22,24,26,28,30,36,38,46,52,54,64,66,76,78,80,84,90 SEVETEEN 4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,38,40,42,44,48,50,56,58,64,66,68 EIGHTEEN 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,20,22,24,26,28,30,44,46,50,56,60,80,90,92

******************************************************************** CHEMISTRY 1025, PROBLEM SETS ************************* {[ Problem Sets]}************************ Chapter two, Scientific Measurements

Which of the following terms is a metric unit of length? (a) centimeter (b) gram (c) milliliter (d) second (e) none of the above Answer:a

Question: Which of the following terms is a metric unit of mass? (a) centimeter (b) gram (c) milliliter (d) second (e) none of the above Answer:b

How many significant digits are in the length measurement 0.0100 meter? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) none of the above Answer:c

How many significant digits are in the time measurement 20,000 seconds? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) none of the above Answer:a

Round off the following measurement to three significant digits: 35.35 mL. (a) 35.0 mL (b) 35.3 mL (c) 35.30 mL (d) 35.4 mL (e) 35.40 mL Answer:d

Round off the following measurement to three significant digits: 2252 cm. (a) 225 cm (b) 226 cm (c) 230 cm (d) 2250 cm (e) 2260 cm Answer:d

Add 25.5 cm to 0.55 cm and round off to the proper significant digits. (a) 26 cm (b) 26.0 cm (c) 26.05 cm (d) 26.1 cm (e) 27 cm Answer:d

Multiply 2.505 cm times 1.75 cm and round off the answer. (a) 4.0 cm (b) 4.00 cm (c) 4.38 cm (d) 4.384 cm (e) 4.40 cm Answer:c

Express 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 in exponential form. (a) 1 x 10 (b) 1 x 10 (c) 1 x 10 (d) 1 x 10 (e) none of the above Answer:d

Express 0.000 000 000 000 01 in exponential form. (a) 1 x 10 (b) 1 x 10 (c) 1 x 10 (d) 1 x 10 (e) 1 x 10 Answer:b

Express the exponential number 1.11 x 10 as an ordinary number. (a) 0.000 111 (b) 0.000 0111 (c) 0.000 001 11 (d) 11,100 (e) 225,000 Answer:d

Express the exponential number 1.11 x 10 as an ordinary number. (a) 0.000 111 (b) 0.000 0111 (c) 0.000 001 11 (d) 11,100 (e) 225,000 Answer:d

Express the exponential number 1.51 x 10 as an ordinary number. (a) - 0.000 151 (b) 0.000 151 (c) 0.000 0151 (d) 15,100 (e) 151,000 Answer:c

Which of the following unit factors is derived from: 1 rod = 16.5 feet? (a) 1 rod/1 foot (b) 1 rod/16.5 feet (c) 1 foot/16.5 rods (d) 16.5 rods/1 foot (e) 16.5 rods/16.5 feet Answer:b

********************************************************************* ************************* Problem Sets ***************************

Chapter three, Metric System

Which of the following refers to a nondecimal system of measurement without any basic unit for length, mass, or volume? (a) cgs system (b) English system (c) metric system (d) International System (e) none of the above Answer:b

Which of the following is a unit of energy in the SI system? (a) calorie (b) Calorie (c) kilocalorie (d) joule (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the term for the relationship of a fraction and its inverse? (a) percentage (b) reciprocal (c) unit equation (d) unit factor (e) none of the above Answer:b

hat is the term for the method of determining the volume of an object by measuring the increase in liquid level after the object is immersed in water? (a) displacement method (b) immersion method (c) volume by calculation (d) volume by displacement (e) none of the above Answer:d

What physical quantity is expressed by the metric unit centimeter? (a) length (b) mass (c) volume (d) density (e) none of the above Answer:a

What physical quantity is expressed by the metric unit milliliter? (a) length (b) mass (c) volume (d) density (e) none of the above Answer:c

Which of the following is the best estimate for the volume corresponding to 20 drops from an eyedropper? (a) 1 mL (b) 10 mL (c) 100 mL (d) 1000 mL (e) 10,000 mL Answer:a

According to the metric system, 1 m = 1000 _____. (a) cm (b) dm (c) km (d) mm (e) none of the above Answer:d

According to the metric system, 1 g = 1,000,000 _____. (a) Mg (b) mg (c) ng (d) g (e) none of the above Answer:d

According to the metric system, 1 g = 1,000,000,000 _____. (a) Gg (b) mg (c) ng (d) g (e) none of the above Answer:c

According to the metric system, 1 L = 1 x 10 _____. (a) kL (b) dL (c) cL (d) mL (e) none of the above Answer:b

According to the metric system, 1 L = 1 x 10 _____. (a) cL (b) dL (c) kL (d) mL (e) none of the above Answer:a

According to the metric system, 1 s = 1 x 10 _____. (a) Gs (b) ms (c) ns (d) s (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the three-step sequence in applying the unit analysis method of problem solving? (a) 1-unknown units, 2-unit factor, 3-relevant given value (b) 1-unknown units, 2-relevant given value, 3-unit factor (c) 1-relevant given value, 2-unknown units, 3-unit factor (d) 1-unit factor, 2-unknown units, 3-relevant given value (e) 1-unit factor, 2-relevant given value, 3-unknown units Answer:b

What is the three-step sequence in applying the unit analysis method of problem solving? (a) 1-relevant given value, 2-unknown units, 3-unit factor (b) 1-unit factor, 2-unknown units, 3-relevant given value (c) 1-unknown units, 2-unit factor, 3-relevant given value (d) 1-unknown units, 2-relevant given value, 3-unit factor (e) 1-unit factor, 2-relevant given value, 3-unknown units Answer:d

If an automobile airbag inflates in 25 s, what is the time in seconds? (a) 0.000 025 s (b) 0.000 25 s (c) 25,000 s (d) 25,000,000 s (e) none of the above Answer:a

If a downhill ski measures 185 cm, what is the length in decimeters? (a) 1.85 dm (b) 18.5 dm (c) 1850 dm (d) 18,500 dm (e) none of the above Answer:b

If a glass marble weighs 3150 mg, what is the mass in centigrams? (a) 3.15 cg (b) 31.5 cg (c) 315 cg (d) 31,050 cg (e) none of the above Answer:c

If a transistor switches on-off-on in 0.015 s, what is the time in nanoseconds? (a) 0.000 000 015 ns (b) 0.000 015 ns (c) 15 ns (d) 15,000 ns (e) none of the above Answer:c

If 10.4 cm of gold has a mass of 0.197 kg, what is the mass in pounds? (a) 0.434 lb (b) 4.51 lb (c) 89.4 lb (d) 4720 lb (e) 89,400 lb Answer:a

If a crucible contains 46.5 cm, what is the volume in cubic inches? (a) 2.84 in. (b) 7.21 in. (c) 18.3 in. (d) 118 in. (e) 763 in. Answer:a

If a motorcycle engine is 115 in., what is the volume in liters? (a) 0.292 L (b) 0.742 L (c) 1.88 L (d) 292 L (e) 1880 L Answer:c

A 84.84 g sample of steel is added to a 100 mL graduated cylinder with 45.0 mL of water. If the resulting water level is 55.5 mL, what is the volume of the steel? (a) 10.5 mL (b) 44.5 mL (c) 55.0 mL (d) 89.5 mL (e) 100.5 mL Answer:a

A 109.35 g sample of brass is added to a 100 mL graduated cylinder with 55.5 mL of water. If the resulting water level is 68.0 mL, what is the volume of the brass? (a) 12.5 mL (b) 32.0 mL (c) 44.5 mL (d) 87.5 mL (e) 123.5 mL Answer:a

A 1.75 g sample of baking soda is heated and releases carbon dioxide gas into a 1000-mL flask. If the flask initially contains 750 mL of water and 305 mL remain after the gas has displaced a portion of the water, what is the volume of the gas? (a) 250 mL (b) 305 mL (c) 445 mL (d) 555 mL (e) 695 mL Answer:c

If the density of methyl alcohol is 0.813 g/mL, which of the following is a related unit factor? (a) 1 g/1 mL (b) 1 g/0.813 mL (c) 0.813 g/1 mL (d) 0.813 g/0.813 mL (e) 0.813 mL/1 g Answer:c

The density of water at 3.98C is 1.00 g/mL. What is the density in g/cm? (a) 1.00 g/cm (b) 2.54 g/cm (c) 3.98 g/cm (d) 16.4 g/cm (e) 62.4 g/cm Answer:a

A 10.0 cm volume of alcohol has a mass of 7.045 g. What is the density of the alcohol in grams per cubic centimeter? (a) 0.704 g/cm (b) 0.705 g/cm (c) 10.0 g/cm (d) 70.5 g/cm (e) 7.05 g/cm Answer:b

A glass cylinder contains four liquid layers: mercury (d = 13.6 g/mL), chloroform (d = 1.49 g/mL), water (d = 1.00 g/mL), ether (d = 0.708 g/mL). If a piece of ice (d = 0.917 g/mL) is dropped into the cylinder, where does it come to rest? (a) on top of the mercury layer (b) on top of the chloroform layer (c) on top of the water layer (d) on top of the ether layer (e) on the bottom of the cylinder Answer:c

A rare metal alloy is a superconductor at -250C. What is the temperature on the Kelvin scale? (a) -523 K (b) -250 K (c) -23 K (d) 23 K (e) 523 K Answer:d

How many kilocalories of heat are required to raise 250.0 g of water from 20.0C to 75.0C? (a) 0.220 kcal (b) 4.55 kcal (c) 5.00 kcal (d) 13.8 kcal (e) 18.8 kcal Answer:d

A 100.0 g sample of aluminum released 1680 calories when cooled from 100.0C to 20.0C. What is the specific heat of the metal? (a) 0.168 cal/g x C (b) 0.210 cal/g x C (c) 0.840 cal/g x C (d) 4.76 cal/g x C (e) 21.0 cal/g x C Answer:b

Which of the following are basic units and symbols in the metric system? (a) centimeter (cm), gram (g), liter (L) (b) centimeter (cm), gram (g), milliliter (mL) (c) meter (m), gram (g), liter (L) (d) meter (m), gram (g), liter (l) (e) none of the above Answer:c

Which of the following are basic units and symbols in the English system? (a) inch (in.), ounce (oz), pint (pt) (b) foot (ft), pound (lb), quart (qt) (c) yard (yd), pound (lb), gallon (gal) (d) mile (mi), ton (ton), gallon (gal) (e) none of the above Answer:e

Which of the following is the best estimate for the diameter of a 1 coin? (a) 0.5 cm (b) 2 cm (c) 5 cm (d) 10 cm (e) 20 cm Answer:b

Which of the following is the best estimate for the volume of liquid in a regular soft drink can? (a) 5 mL (b) 10 mL (c) 350 mL (d) 1000 mL (e) 5000 mL Answer:c

Which of the following is equivalent to the volume of a cube 1-cm on a side? (a) 1 L (b) 1 cL (c) 1 dL (d) 1 kL (e) 1 mL Answer:e

According to the metric system, 1 s = 10 _______. (a) cs (b) ds (c) ks (d) s (e) none of the above Answer:d

How many significant digits are justified by the unit factor 1 m/100 cm? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) infinite (e) impossible to determine Answer:d

In performing a multistep calculation, when should you round off the answer in the calculator display? (a) after each step in the calculation (b) after the first intermediate calculation (c) after the second intermediate calculation (d) after the final calculation (e) none of the above Answer:d

Calculate the length of a copper wire having a diameter of 0.200 cm and a mass of 15.620 g. The density of copper is 8.92 g/cm. (Given: volume = dL/4, where = 3.14, d = diameter, and L = length) (a) 1.80 x 10 cm (b) 4.00 x 10 cm (c) 5.50 x 10 cm (d) 1.75 cm (e) 55.7 cm Answer:e

Which swimming competition in the Olympic Summer Games is nearly equal in length to 100 yards? (a) 100 meters (b) 200 meters (c) 500 meters (d) 50 kilometers (e) 100 kilometers Answer:a

Which of the following is a skiing event in the Olympic Winter Games? (a) 50 kilometers (b) 50 miles (c) 5000 feet (d) 500 yards (e) 1000 yards Answer:a

Which of the following is not a base quantity in SI? (a) length (b) mass (c) volume (d) time (e) temperature Answer:c

Which of the following is a symbol for a base unit in SI? (a) kg (b) mol (c) A (d) cd (e) all of the above Answer:e

What is the term for the methodical exploration of nature and the logical explanation of the observations? (a) alchemy (b) chemistry (c) experiment (d) science (e) none of the above Answer:d

What four elements composed everything in nature according to the beliefs of the ancient Greeks? (a) air, earth, fire, and water (b) air, earth, salt, and water (c) air, ashes, fire, and water (d) smoke, earth, fire, and water (e) none of the above Answer:a

What of the following was a basic element in nature according to Aristotle? (a) ashes (b) ether (c) salt (d) smoke (e) none of the above Answer:b

Who is generally considered to be the founder of the scientific method? (a) Aristotle (b) Robert Boyle (c) John Dalton (d) Benjamin Franklin (e) Antoine Lavoisier Answer:b

Which of the following is a basic step in the scientific method? (a) perform an experiment and collect data (b) analyze experimental data and propose a hypothesis (c) test a hypothesis and state a theory or law (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the difference between a hypothesis and a scientific theory? (a) a hypothesis is a tentative proposal and a theory is a tested proposal (b) a theory is a tentative proposal and a hypothesis is a tested proposal (c) a hypothesis requires an experiment and a theory does not (d) a theory requires an experiment and a hypothesis does not (e) none of the above Answer:a

Which of the following statements is a natural law? (a) The mass of substances, before and after a chemical change, is the same. (b) If the volume of a gas doubles, the pressure decreases by a factor of two. (c) The energy derived from a change in mass is found by E = mc. (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:d

Who is generally considered to be the founder of modern chemistry? (a) Aristotle (b) Robert Boyle (c) John Dalton (d) Benjamin Franklin (e) Antoine Lavoisier Answer:e

Which of the following professions requires a knowledge of chemistry? (a) dentistry (b) medicine (c) nursing (d) sports therapy (e) all of the above Answer:e

In a survey by the American Chemical Society, what percent of entering college students thought that chemistry is relevant to their daily lives? (a) less than 1% (b) 1% (c) 5% (d) 10% (e) more than 50% Answer:e

How can a student at first find a problem impossible to solve when later the solution is obvious? (a) The student was tired. (b) The student did not study. (c) The student had a deficient background. (d) The student had an unconscious assumption. (e) none of the above Answer:d

Which of the following is a positive association with the study of chemistry? (a) chemistry topics are relevant to our daily lives (b) chemistry leads to career opportunities (c) chemistry has biomedical applications (d) chemistry benefits society (e) all of the above Answer:e

What subject is referred to as the central science? (a) biology (b) chemistry (c) geology (d) physics (e) none of the above Answer:b

What is the minimum number of straight, continuous lines that are necessary to connect the following nine dots?

. . .

. . .

. . .

(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) 5 Answer:a

Which alchemist proposed that the four Greek elements combined to form only two elements-sulfur and mercury? (a) Aristotle (b) Empedocles (c) Geber (d) Paracelsus (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the meaning of the Arabic word al-iksir from which we get the term elixir? (a) gold (b) lead (c) medicine (d) potion (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the term for the number that identifies a particular element? (a) atomic number (b) element number (c) mass number (d) substance number (e) none of the above Answer:a

What is the term for a property that cannot be observed without changing the chemical formula of a substance? (a) atomic property (b) chemical property (c) molecular property (d) physical property (e) none of the above Answer:b

What is the term for the abbreviation of the name of an element? (a) atomic number (b) atomic notation (c) chemical formula (d) chemical symbol (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the term for a pure substance that can be broken down into two or more substances by chemical reaction? (a) compound (b) element (c) homogeneous (d) matter (e) none of the above Answer:a

What is the term for matter that can be physically separated into two or more substances? (a) compound (b) element (c) heterogeneous mixture (d) pure substance (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the term for the energy of a particle that is related to mass and velocity? (a) kinetic energy (b) mechanical energy (c) potential energy (d) radiant energy (e) none of the above Answer:a

Which of the following laws states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed? (a) law of conservation of energy (b) law of conservation of mass (c) law of conservation of mass and energy (d) law of constant composition (e) none of the above Answer:a

What is the term for the property of a metal to be hammered into a foil? (a) alloy (b) ductile (c) malleable (d) tensile (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the term for a property that can be observed without changing the chemical formula of a substance? (a) atomic property (b) chemical property (c) molecular property (d) physical property (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the term for matter that has definite composition and constant properties? (a) heterogeneous mixture (b) homogeneous mixture (c) pure sample (d) pure substance (e) none of the above Answer:d

Which of the following describes a substance in the gaseous physical state? (a) The substance has a variable shape. (b) The substance has a variable volume. (c) Particles have unrestricted movement. (d) Particles have a random arrangement. (e) all of the above Answer:e

What is the term for a direct change of state from a solid to a gas? (a) condensation (b) deposition (c) sublimation (d) vaporization (e) none of the above Answer:c

Air contains nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and other gases. Which of the following terms describes air? (a) element (b) compound (c) pure substance (d) homogeneous mixture (e) heterogeneous mixture Answer:d

Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc and the percentage of copper can vary from 60-80%. Classify brass as one of the following. (a) compound (b) element (c) heterogeneous mixture (d) homogeneous mixture (e) pure substance Answer:d

Which of the following names of elements corresponds to the symbol I? (a) indium (b) iodine (c) iridium (d) iron (e) none of the above Answer:b

Which of the following names of elements corresponds to the symbol P? (a) phosphorus (b) platinum (c) plutonium (d) potassium (e) none of the above Answer:a

Which of the following chemical symbols corresponds to krypton? (a) K (b) Kr (c) Kn (d) P (e) none of the above Answer:b

Which of the following chemical symbols corresponds to titanium? (a) Sn (b) Ta (c) Ti (d) Tm (e) none of the above Answer:c

Which of the following is a general physical property of a nonmetal? (a) brittle in the solid state (b) nonconductor of heat and electricity (c) low density and melting point (d) occurs as a solid or a gas at normal conditions (e) all of the above Answer:e

Dynamite is made from TNT and cellulose paper. If the formula is CH(NO), what is the number of atoms in the formula of the explosive? (a) 4 (b) 15 (c) 18 (d) 21 (e) 45 Answer:d

Citric acid has a tart taste and is found in citrus fruit such as lemons, limes, and oranges. If the formula is CHOH(COOH), what is the number of atoms in the formula of citric acid? (a) 10 (b) 12 (c) 15 (d) 21 (e) 39 Answer:d

Which of the following properties of kerosene is a chemical property? (a) miscible with gasoline (b) flammable with oxygen (c) colorless liquid (d) boiling point, 174C (e) density, 0.730 g/mL Answer:b

Which of the following is an example of a chemical property of ethanol? (a) ethanol and sulfuric acid yield ethyl ether (b) ethanol in animals produces intoxication (c) ethanol and sodium metal release a gas (d) ethanol and formic acid give rum flavor (e) all of the above Answer:e

If 0.230 g of sodium metal react with 0.355 g of chlorine gas, how many grams of sodium chloride are produced? (a) 0.125 g (b) 0.230 g (c) 0.355 g (d) 0.585 g (e) impossible to predict from the given information Answer:d

A nuclear power plant uses radioactive uranium to convert water to steam. The steam then drives a turbine which turns a generator for electricity. What change is involved in the process? (a) nuclear energy to heat energy (b) heat energy to mechanical energy (c) mechanical energy to mechanical energy (d) mechanical energy to electrical energy (e) all of the above Answer:e

Which of the following compounds has physical and chemical properties similar to the element potassium? (a) KCl (b) KNO (c) KCrO (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:e

Who was the American chemistry student that discovered an inexpensive method for producing aluminum metal from its ore? (a) Frederick Alum (b) Robert Boyle (c) Thomas Edison (d) Charles Hall (e) none of the above Answer:d

Who was the French chemist that discovered an inexpensive method for producing aluminum metal from its ore? (a) Frederick Alum (b) Thomas Edison (c) Charles Hall (d) Paul Hroult (e) none of the above Answer:d

What was the approximate percentage of aluminum cans recycled in 1990? (a) ~0% (b) ~20% (c) ~45% (d) ~60% (e) ~95% Answer:d

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*************************Problem Sets ******************************* Chapter four,Matter and Energy

What four elements composed everything in nature according to the beliefs of the ancient Greeks? (a) air, earth, fire, and water (b) air, earth, salt, and water (c) air, ashes, fire, and water (d) smoke, earth, fire, and water (e) none of the above Answer:a

What of the following was a basic element in nature according to Aristotle? (a) ashes (b) ether (c) salt (d) smoke (e) none of the above Answer:b

What is the difference between a hypothesis and a scientific theory? (a) a hypothesis is a tentative proposal and a theory is a tested proposal (b) a theory is a tentative proposal and a hypothesis is a tested proposal (c) a hypothesis requires an experiment and a theory does not (d) a theory requires an experiment and a hypothesis does not (e) none of the above Answer:a

What question can we ask in order to distinguish between a theory and a law? (a) Does the statement concern atoms? (b) Does the statement concern gases? (c) Is the statement comprehensible? (d) Is the statement measurable? (e) none of the above Answer:d

Which of the following statements is a natural law? (a) The mass of substances, before and after a chemical change, is the same. (b) If the volume of a gas doubles, the pressure decreases by a factor of two. (c) The energy derived from a change in mass is found by E = mc. (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:d

In which of the following industries does chemistry play an important role? (a) agriculture (b) medicine (c) petrochemical (d) pharmaceutical (e) all of the above Answer:e

Is it possible to observe one visual image and have two different perceptions? (a) yes (b) It is only possible if the image is large. (c) It is only possible if the image is in color. (d) It is only possible if the image is in black and white. (e) no Answer:a

Which of the following is a positive association with the study of chemistry? (a) chemistry topics are relevant to our daily lives (b) chemistry leads to career opportunities (c) chemistry has biomedical applications (d) chemistry benefits society (e) all of the above Answer:e

What subject is referred to as the central science? (a) biology (b) chemistry (c) geology (d) physics (e) none of the above Answer:b

Which alchemist could not find immortality but did discover coal mining was associated with lung disease? (a) Aristotle (b) Empedocles (c) Geber (d) Paracelsus (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the meaning of the Arabic word al-iksir from which we get the term elixir? (a) gold (b) lead (c) medicine (d) potion (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the term for a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals? (a) alloy (b) compound (c) ductile (d) malleable (e) none of the above Answer:a

What is the term for the symbolic representation of a compound that indicates the number of atoms of each element? (a) atomic number (b) atomic notation (c) chemical formula (d) chemical symbol (e) none of the above Answer:c

Which of the following describes a substance in the solid physical state? (a) The substance has a definite shape. (b) The substance has a fixed volume. (c) Particles vibrate in fixed positions. (d) Particles have an ordered arrangement. (e) all of the above Answer:e

Which of the following describes a substance in the liquid physical state? (a) The substance has a variable shape. (b) The substance has a fixed volume. (c) Particles have restricted movement. (d) Particles have a random arrangement. (e) all of the above Answer:e

What is the term for the change of state from a liquid to a gas? (a) condensing (b) freezing (c) melting (d) vaporizing (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the term for the change of state from a gas to a liquid? (a) condensing (b) freezing (c) melting (d) vaporizing (e) none of the above Answer:a

Which of the following examples of matter must be separated into two or more substances by chemical methods? (a) compound (b) element (c) heterogeneous mixture (d) homogeneous mixture (e) none of the above Answer:a

Which of the following is always present in an alloy? (a) metal and nonmetal (b) metal and semimetal (c) semimetal and nonmetal (d) two or more metals (e) two or more nonmetals Answer:d

Which of the following names of elements corresponds to the symbol C? (a) cadmium (b) chromium (c) cobalt (d) copper (e) none of the above Answer:e

Which of the following names of elements corresponds to the symbol N? (a) neon (b) neptunium (c) nickel (d) niobium (e) none of the above Answer:e

Which of the following names of elements corresponds to the symbol S? (a) selenium (b) silicon (c) sodium (d) strontium (e) none of the above Answer:e

Which of the following names of elements corresponds to the symbol Hg? (a) antimony (b) mercury (c) silver (d) tin (e) none of the above Answer:b

Which of the following chemical symbols corresponds to cobalt? (a) C (b) Ca (c) Co (d) Cl (e) none of the above Answer:c

Which of the following chemical symbols corresponds to germanium? (a) Au (b) Ga (c) Ge (d) Sb (e) none of the above Answer:c

Which of the following chemical symbols corresponds to krypton? (a) K (b) Kr (c) Kn (d) P (e) none of the above Answer:b

Which of the following chemical symbols corresponds to xenon? (a) Se (b) Xe (c) Xn (d) Zn (e) none of the above Answer:b

Which of the following elements is not one of the ten most abundant in the Earth's crust, oceans, and atmosphere? (a) aluminum (b) iron (c) nickel (d) oxygen (e) silicon Answer:c

Which of the following elements is not one of the ten most abundant in the Earth's crust, oceans, and atmosphere? (a) magnesium (b) molybdenum (c) potassium (d) sodium (e) titanium Answer:b

Which of the following is not a typical property of a metallic element? (a) malleable (b) good conductor of heat (c) high melting point (d) reacts by losing electrons (e) reacts with other metallic elements Answer:e

Refer to a periodic table and predict which of the following elements is a gas at 25C and one atmosphere pressure? (a) Ra (b) Re (c) Rh (d) Rn (e) Ru Answer:d

Refer to a periodic table and predict which of the following is a liquid metal at 25C and one atmosphere pressure? (a) As (b) Br (c) Cl (d) Hg (e) Xe Answer:d

Citric acid has a tart taste and is found in citrus fruit such as lemons, limes, and oranges. If the formula is CHOH(COOH), what is the number of atoms in the formula of citric acid? (a) 10 (b) 12 (c) 15 (d) 21 (e) 39 Answer:d

Which of the following observations is evidence for a physical change? (a) releasing light (b) releasing gas bubbles (c) forming a precipitate (d) changing from a solid to a gas (e) changing from colorless to pink Answer:d

Which of the following observations is not evidence for a chemical change? (a) changing color (b) changing odor (c) dissolving a solute (d) releasing bubbles (e) releasing heat Answer:c

Which of the following is a form of energy? (a) light (b) electrical (c) nuclear (d) chemical (e) all of the above Answer:e

A fuel cell contains hydrogen and oxygen gas. The gases react explosively and the energy converts water to steam. The steam then drives a turbine which turns a generator for electricity. What two forms of energy are represented by the fuel cell and the turbine? (a) chemical and mechanical energy (b) chemical and heat energy (c) electrical and mechanical energy (d) electrical and heat energy (e) nuclear and mechanical energy Answer:a

A fuel cell contains hydrogen and oxygen gas. The gases react explosively and the energy converts water to steam. The steam then drives a turbine which turns a generator for electricity. What are the initial and final forms of energy? (a) chemical and mechanical energy (b) chemical and heat energy (c) chemical and electrical energy (d) nuclear and electrical energy (e) nuclear and mechanical energy Answer:c

A nuclear power plant uses radioactive uranium to convert water to steam. The steam then drives a turbine which turns a generator for electricity. What are the initial and final forms of energy? (a) chemical and mechanical energy (b) chemical and heat energy (c) heat and electrical energy (d) nuclear and electrical energy (e) nuclear and mechanical energy Answer:d

According to the conservation of mass and energy law, which of the following is true of matter and energy? (a) matter and energy are interconvertible (b) matter is neither created nor destroyed (c) energy is neither created nor destroyed (d) matter may be destroyed but not energy (e) energy may be destroyed but not matter Answer:a

According to the conservation of mass and energy law, which of the following is true of a nuclear fusion bomb? (a) the mass of the bomb and the fusion products are identical (b) the energy of the bomb and the fusion products are identical (c) a small amount of matter is converted into energy (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:c

Alum is used in styptic pencils to stop minor bleeding. If the formula is Al(SO), what is the total number of atoms in one formula unit of alum? (a) 10 (b) 12 (c) 14 (d) 17 (e) 21 Answer:d

Who was the American chemistry student that discovered an inexpensive method for producing aluminum metal from its ore? (a) Frederick Alum (b) Robert Boyle (c) Thomas Edison (d) Charles Hall (e) none of the above Answer:d

What was the approximate percentage of aluminum cans recycled in 1970? (a) ~0% (b) ~20% (c) ~45% (d) ~60% (e) ~75% Answer:a

How much energy is required to manufacture a can from raw aluminum ore versus recycled aluminum? (a) It requires about 10 times less energy from recycled aluminum. (b) It requires about 20 times less energy from recycled aluminum. (c) It requires about 10 times more energy from recycled aluminum. (d) It requires about 20 times more energy from recycled aluminum. (e) It requires the same amount of energy regardless of the process. Answer:b

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**************************Problem Sets******************************* Chapter Five, Models of the Atom

What question can we ask in order to distinguish between a theory and a law? (a) Does the statement concern atoms? (b) Does the statement concern gases? (c) Is the statement comprehensible? (d) Is the statement measurable? (e) none of the above Answer:d

Which of the following is derived from a petrochemical? (a) detergents (b) dyes (c) plastics (d) textiles (e) all of the above Answer:e

What is the unconscious assumption that prevents connecting the following nine dots with four straight, continuous lines?

. . .

. . .

. . .

(a) A line cannot be longer than 1 inch. (b) A line cannot be drawn at a 45 angle. (c) A line cannot be drawn at a 90 angle. (d) A line cannot be drawn past a dot. (e) none of the above Answer:d

What subject is said to be at the crossroads of biology, physics, and geology? (a) biochemistry (b) chemistry (c) environmental chemistry (d) geochemistry (e) none of the above Answer:b

What is the term for a symbolic method of expressing the composition of an atomic nucleus? (a) atomic notation (b) atomic number (c) atomic mass (d) mass number (e) none of the above Answer:a

What is the term for the value which indicates the number of protons for an atom of a given element? (a) atomic notation (b) atomic number (c) atomic mass (d) mass number (e) none of the above Answer:b

What is the term for the collection of narrow bands of light that results from excited atoms of a given element releasing energy? (a) continuous spectrum (b) electromagnetic spectrum (c) emission line spectrum (d) radiant energy spectrum (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the term for the spatial region about the nucleus of an atom where there is a high probability of finding an electron with a given energy? (a) electron shell (b) electron subshell (c) orbital (d) principal energy level (e) quantum level Answer:c

How many neutrons are in the nucleus of one atom of silver-107? (a) 13 (b) 47 (c) 60 (d) 107 (e) 154 Answer:c

Which of the following isotopes is deflected equally as carbon-12 by the magnetic field in a mass spectrometer? (a) C-11 (b) C-13 (c) C-14 (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:e

Which of the following isotopes of neon is deflected more than carbon-12 by the magnetic field in a mass spectrometer? (a) Ne-20 (b) Ne-21 (c) Ne-22 (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:e

Element X has two natural isotopes: X-6 (6.015 amu) and X-7 (7.016 amu). Calculate the atomic mass of element X given the abundance of X-7 is 92.5%. (a) 6.09 amu (b) 6.50 amu (c) 6.52 amu (d) 6.94 amu (e) 12.5 amu Answer:d

Element Y has two natural isotopes: Y-63 (62.940 amu) and Y-65 (64.928 amu). Calculate the atomic mass of element Y given the abundance of Y-63 is 69.17%. (a) 63.55 amu (b) 64.00 amu (c) 64.32 amu (d) 107.85 amu (e) 108.46 amu Answer:a

Element Z has two natural isotopes: Z-79 (78.918 amu) and Z-81 (80.916 amu). Calculate the atomic mass of element Z given the abundance of Z-79 is 50.69%. (a) 79.90 amu (b) 79.93 amu (c) 80.00 amu (d) 119.93 amu (e) 120.92 amu Answer:a

Which of the following colors of light has the shortest wavelength? (a) blue (b) red (c) violet (d) yellow (e) all colors have the same wavelength Answer:c

Which of the following types of radiation has the shortest wavelength? (a) gamma rays (b) X rays (c) ultraviolet (d) infrared (e) all radiation has the same wavelength Answer:a

Which of the following colors of light has the highest frequency? (a) blue (b) red (c) violet (d) yellow (e) all colors have the same frequency Answer:c

Which of the following wavelengths of light is most energetic? (a) 440 nm (b) 470 nm (c) 540 nm (d) 650 nm (e) all wavelengths have the same energy Answer:a

Which of the following pairs of instruments produces quantized musical notes? (a) guitar and keyboard (b) guitar and piano (c) violin and keyboard (d) violin and piano (e) keyboard and piano Answer:e

How many quanta of light are emitted when the electron in a hydrogen atom drops from energy level 5 to 3? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 5 (e) none of the above Answer:a

How many quanta of light are emitted when the electrons in 10 hydrogen atoms drop from energy level 3 to 1? (a) 1 (b) 10 (c) 20 (d) 30 (e) 40 Answer:b

Which of the following energy-level changes for an electron is most energetic? (a) 3 2 (b) 4 2 (c) 5 2 (d) 6 2 (e) all energy level changes are the same Answer:d

Which of the following energy-level changes for an electron is most energetic? (a) 2 1 (b) 3 2 (c) 4 3 (d) 5 4 (e) all energy level changes are the same Answer:a

Which of the following energy level changes in a hydrogen atom produces a visible spectral line? (a) 3 2 (b) 4 2 (c) 5 2 (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:d

What type of radiation is emitted when an electron in a hydrogen atom drops from energy level 5 to 2? (a) infrared (b) microwave (c) visible (d) ultraviolet (e) X ray Answer:c

What is the maximum number of electrons that occupy a d energy sublevel? (a) 2 (b) 6 (c) 10 (d) 14 (e) variable; depends upon the principal energy level Answer:c

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the 4f sublevel? (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 10 (d) 14 (e) 32 Answer:d

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the 4th principal energy level? (a) 4 (b) 8 (c) 18 (d) 32 (e) none of the above Answer:d

Which electron sublevel immediately follows the 4s sublevel according to increasing energy? (a) 3p (b) 3d (c) 4p (d) 4d (e) 5s Answer:b

Which electron sublevel immediately follows the 5s sublevel according to increasing energy? (a) 4p (b) 4d (c) 5p (d) 5d (e) 6s Answer:b

Which electron sublevel immediately follows the 4d sublevel according to increasing energy? (a) 4s (b) 4p (c) 5s (d) 5p (e) 5d Answer:d

Which of the following orbitals has a dumbbell shape and is in the fourth shell? (a) 4s (b) 3p (c) 4p (d) 3d (e) 4d Answer:c

Which of the following orbitals has the highest energy? (a) 2px (b) 3px (c) 4px (d) 5px (e) all px orbitals are the same energy Answer:d

How many orbitals exist within the 2p subshell? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 5 (e) 6 Answer:c

How many subshells exist within the fourth electron shell? (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 8 (d) 14 (e) 32 Answer:b

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy a 4f subshell? (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 7 (d) 10 (e) 14 Answer:e

What is the maximum number of electrons in the second electron shell? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 6 (d) 8 (e) none of the above Answer:d

How many electrons are responsible for an intense violet line in the emission spectrum of argon? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 18 (d) 40 (e) a very large number Answer:e

How was Dalton able to accept a degree from Oxford dressed in a scarlet robe, when wearing scarlet was forbidden by his Quaker faith? (a) Dalton saw his robe as gray. (b) Dalton had to refuse the honor. (c) Dalton received special permission. (d) Dalton was given an individual ceremony. (e) none of the above Answer:a

Which of the following gaseous elements produces a reddish-orange glow when excited in an advertising light? (a) helium (b) hydrogen (c) mercury (d) neon (e) nitrogen Answer:d

Which of the following gaseous elements produces a blue glow when excited in an advertising light? (a) helium (b) hydrogen (c) mercury (d) neon (e) nitrogen Answer:c

What is the mathematical expression for calculating the wavelength of light from an excited hydrogen atom when an electron drops to the second level? (a) Balmer formula (b) Bohr formula (c) Rutherford equation (d) Rydberg equation (e) all of the above Answer:a

Using the Balmer formula, calculate the wavelength of the emission line for electrons in a hydrogen atom dropping from energy level 10 to 2. (a) 230 nm (b) 350 nm (c) 360 nm (d) 380 nm (e) 420 nm Answer:d

What is the term for a unit of energy that is emitted when an electron in an excited atom drops to a lower energy level? (a) light particle (b) Planck's constant (c) radiant particle (d) quantum (e) none of the above Answer:d

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************************ Chapter Six, The Periodic Table*************

What is the term for the study of the composition and properties of matter? (a) alchemy (b) biochemistry (c) chemistry (d) science (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the term for the procedure of collecting data and recording observations under controlled conditions? (a) alchemy (b) chemistry (c) experiment (d) science (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the term for a tentative proposal of a scientific principle that attempts to explain the meaning of a set of data collected in an experiment? (a) estimation (b) hypothesis (c) natural law (d) theory (e) none of the above Answer:b

What is the term for an extensively tested proposal of a scientific principle that explains the behavior of nature? (a) experiment (b) hypothesis (c) natural law (d) theory (e) none of the above Answer:d

Who is generally considered to be the founder of the scientific method? (a) Aristotle (b) Robert Boyle (c) John Dalton (d) Benjamin Franklin (e) Antoine Lavoisier Answer:b

What question can we ask in order to distinguish between a theory and a law? (a) Does the statement concern atoms? (b) Does the statement concern gases? (c) Is the statement comprehensible? (d) Is the statement measurable? (e) none of the above Answer:d

Who is generally considered to be the founder of modern chemistry? (a) Aristotle (b) Robert Boyle (c) John Dalton (d) Benjamin Franklin (e) Antoine Lavoisier Answer:e

In which of the following industries does chemistry play an important role? (a) agriculture (b) medicine (c) petrochemical (d) pharmaceutical (e) all of the above Answer:e

Which of the following professions requires a knowledge of chemistry? (a) dentistry (b) medicine (c) nursing (d) sports therapy (e) all of the above Answer:e

Which of the following is a positive association with the study of chemistry? (a) chemistry topics are relevant to our daily lives (b) chemistry leads to career opportunities (c) chemistry has biomedical applications (d) chemistry benefits society (e) all of the above Answer:e

What is the meaning of the Arabic word al-iksir from which we get the term elixir? (a) gold (b) lead (c) medicine (d) potion (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the term for a representation of an atom and its valence electrons that shows the chemical symbol surrounded by a dot for each valence electron? (a) atom dot notation (b) core notation (c) electron dot formula (d) valence formula (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the collective term for the two series of elements that include Ce-Lu and Th-Lr? (a) rare earth elements (b) transition elements (c) inner transition elements (d) representative elements (e) transuranium elements Answer:c

What is the term for the charge on an atom that has lost or gained electrons? (a) atomic charge (b) electron charge (c) ionic charge (d) valence charge (e) none of the above Answer:c

What terms refer to a horizontal row in the periodic table of elements? (a) group or series (b) group or family (c) period or series (d) period or family (e) series or family Answer:c

The modern periodic law states that the properties of the elements repeat when the periodic table is arranged according to which of the following? (a) increasing atomic mass (b) increasing isotopic mass (c) increasing atomic number (d) increasing mass number (e) increasing neutron number Answer:c

Which of the following is a transition element? (a) Cu (b) Ag (c) Au (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:d

Which of the following elements is a radioactive metal? (a) P (b) Pm (c) Po (d) Pr (e) none of the above Answer:b

Which of the following elements is a radioactive nonmetal? (a) At (b) Po (c) Ra (d) Rn (e) none of the above Answer:d

Which of the following elements is a not a solid metal? (a) Cr (b) Hg (c) Ni (d) Sn (e) none of the above Answer:b

Which of the following elements is a solid semimetal? (a) Al (b) Ga (c) Sn (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:e

Which of the following elements is a solid semimetal? (a) Al (b) Be (c) Ge (d) Pb (e) none of the above Answer:c

Which of the following elements is an alkali metal? (a) Li (b) Na (c) K (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:d

Which of the following elements is an alkali metal? (a) Al (b) Cs (c) Cu (d) Mg (e) none of the above Answer:b

Predict which of the following elements has the most metallic character. (a) Li (b) Na (c) Be (d) Mg (e) Al Answer:b

Predict which of the following elements has the least metallic character. (a) F (b) Cl (c) Br (d) O (e) S Answer:a

Predict which of the following elements has the largest atomic radius. (a) Na (b) K (c) Ca (d) Fe (e) Al Answer:b

Predict which of the following elements has the smallest atomic radius? (a) C (b) N (c) O (d) P (e) S Answer:c

Which of the following is a general trend from left to right in the periodic table of elements? (a) atomic radius increases; metallic character increases (b) atomic radius increases; metallic character decreases (c) atomic radius decreases; metallic character increases (d) atomic radius decreases; metallic character decreases (e) none of the above Answer:d

Given the chemical formulas NaCl, MgCl2, and AlCl3, predict the formula for radium chloride, RaxCly. (a) RaCl (b) Ra2Cl (c) RaCl2 (d) Ra2Cl4 (e) RaCl3 Answer:a

Given the chemical formulas NaCl, MgCl2, and AlCl3, predict the formula for gallium chloride, GaxCly. (a) GaCl (b) Ga2Cl (c) GaCl2 (d) Ga3Cl (e) GaCl3 Answer:e

Which energy sublevel is being filled by the elements Ga through Kr? (a) 3d (b) 4s (c) 4p (d) 4d (e) 4f Answer:c

Predict the number of valence electrons for a Group VIIA/17 element. (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 7 (e) 17 Answer:d

Which of the following is the electron dot formula for an atom of potassium? (a) K.

(b) K. . . (c) .K. . . (d) K. . . . (e) .K

Answer:a

Which of the following is the electron dot formula for an atom of strontium? (a) Sr.

(b) Sr. . . (c) .Sr. . . (d) .Sr. . . . (e) .Sr.

Answer:b

Which of the following groups has a predictable ionic charge of three negative? (a) Group IIIA/13 (b) Group IIIB/3 (c) Group VA/15 (d) Group VB/5 (e) Group VIIIA/18 Answer:c

What is the predicted ionic charge for a lead ion? (a) 1+ (b) 3+ (c) 4+ (d) 1- (e) 4- Answer:c

What is the electron configuration for a calcium ion, Ca+2? (a) 1s2 2s22p63s23p6 (b) 1s22s22p63s13p64s2 (c) 1s 2s 2p63s 3p64s (d) 1s 2s 2p63s 3p64s 3d (e) 1s 2s 2p63s 3p64s 3d10 Answer:a

What is the electron configuration for a fluoride ion, F- (a) 1s22s22p2 (b) 1s 2s 2p4 (c) 1s22s22p6 (d) 1s 2s 2p63s2 (e) 1s 2s 2p63s 3p6 Answer:c

Previous to the 1985 recommendation by IUPAC, what was the designation for the Group 16 family of elements according to the European convention? (a) IVA (b) IVB (c) VIA (d) VIB (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the symbol of the element named for the Polish-French physicist who shared the 1903 Nobel prize for the discovery of radioactivity and the 1911 Nobel prize for the discovery of the elements radium and polonium? (a) Am (b) Cm (c) Fm (d) Md (e) No Answer:b

Previous to the 1985 recommendation by IUPAC, what was the designation for the Group 1 family of elements according to the American convention? (a) Group IA (b) Group IB (c) Group VIIA (d) Group VIIB (e) none of the above Answer:a

Which of the following elements has the same group number according to both the American and European conventions? (a) Ba (b) Os (c) Pt (d) Hg (e) none of the above Answer:d

********************************************************************* ********************************************************************* Chapter Seven, Language of Chemistry

What is the term for the methodical exploration of nature and the logical explanation of the observations? (a) alchemy (b) chemistry (c) experiment (d) science (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the term for an extensively tested proposal of a scientific principle that explains the behavior of nature? (a) experiment (b) hypothesis (c) natural law (d) theory (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the difference between a hypothesis and a scientific theory? (a) a hypothesis is a tentative proposal and a theory is a tested proposal (b) a theory is a tentative proposal and a hypothesis is a tested proposal (c) a hypothesis requires an experiment and a theory does not (d) a theory requires an experiment and a hypothesis does not (e) none of the above Answer:a

Which of the following statements is a natural law? (a) The mass of substances, before and after a chemical change, is the same. (b) If the volume of a gas doubles, the pressure decreases by a factor of two. (c) The energy derived from a change in mass is found by E = mc. (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:d

Petrochemicals are derived from which of the following of Earth's resources? (a) atmosphere (b) petroleum (c) seawater (d) trees (e) none of the above Answer:b

Which of the following professions requires a knowledge of chemistry? (a) dentistry (b) medicine (c) nursing (d) sports therapy (e) all of the above Answer:e

How can a student at first find a problem impossible to solve when later the solution is obvious? (a) The student was tired. (b) The student did not study. (c) The student had a deficient background. (d) The student had an unconscious assumption. (e) none of the above Answer:d

Which of the following is a positive association with the practice of chemistry? (a) chemical experiments are fun (b) chemical experiments may cause injury (c) chemical experiments may be foul smelling (d) chemical experiments may produce toxic waste (e) none of the above Answer:a

What subject is referred to as the central science? (a) biology (b) chemistry (c) geology (d) physics (e) none of the above Answer:b

Which alchemist could not find immortality but did discover coal mining was associated with lung disease? (a) Aristotle (b) Empedocles (c) Geber (d) Paracelsus (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the meaning of the Arabic word al-iksir from which we get the term elixir? (a) gold (b) lead (c) medicine (d) potion (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the term for a compound containing hydrogen and a nonmetal dissolved in water? (a) binary acid (b) binary base (c) ternary acid (d) ternary base (e) none of the above Answer:a

What is the term for a systematic set of rules for naming chemical compounds? (a) Geneva rules (b) IUPAC nomenclature (c) Latin system rules (d) Stock system rules (e) none of the above Answer:b

The compound Na2SO4is classified as which of the following? (a) binary ionic (b) ternary ionic (c) binary molecular (d) binary acid (e) ternary oxyacid Answer:b

Aqueous H2Se is classified as which of the following? (a) binary ionic (b) ternary ionic (c) binary molecular (d) binary acid (e) ternary oxyacid Answer:d

Aqueous HClO2is classified as which of the following? (a) binary ionic (b) ternary ionic (c) binary molecular (d) binary acid (e) ternary oxyacid Answer:e

Aqueous H2SO4 is classified as which of the following? (a) binary ionic (b) ternary ionic (c) binary molecular (d) binary acid (e) ternary oxyacid Answer:e

What is the Stock system name for Hg2+? (a) mercury ion (b) mercury(I) ion (c) mercury(II) ion (d) mercuric ion (e) mercurous ion Answer:c

What is the formula for the hydrogen sulfate ion? (a) HSO4- (b) HSO4-2 (c) HSO4- (d) HSO4-2 (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the formula for the ionic compound composed of the lithium ion, Li+, and the oxide ion, O2-? (a) LiO (b) LiO (c) LiO (d) LiO (e) none of the above Answer:b

What is the formula for the ionic compound composed of the aluminum ion, Al3+, and the oxide ion, O2-? (a) AlO (b) Al2O3 (c) Al3O2 (d) Al6O6 (e) none of the above Answer:b

What is the formula for the ionic compound composed of the strontium ion, Sr2+, and the bromide ion, Br-? (a) SrBr (b) Sr2Br (c) SrBr2 (d) Sr2Br2 (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the formula for the ionic compound composed of the gold(III) ion, Au3+, and the iodide ion, I-? (a) AuI (b) Au3I (c) AuI3 (d) Au3I3 (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the formula for the ionic compound composed of the cobalt(III) ion, Co3+, and the sulfide ion, S2-? (a) CoS (b) Co2S3 (c) Co3S2 (d) Co6S6 (e) none of the above Answer:b

What is the ionic charge for the copper ion in CuS? (a) zero (b) 1+ (c) 2+ (d) 3+ (e) 4+ Answer:c

What is the ionic charge for the copper ion in Cu2S? (a) zero (b) 1+ (c) 2+ (d) 3+ (e) 4+ Answer:b

What is the formula for mercuric nitride? (a) HgN3 (b) Hg2N3 (c) Hg3N2 (d) (Hg2)2N3 (e) (Hg)3N2 Answer:c

What is the name of Mn3N2 according to IUPAC nomenclature? (a) manganese nitride (b) manganese(II) nitride (c) manganese nitrite (d) manganese(II) nitrite (e) manganese nitrate Answer:b

Predict the chemical formula for cadmium sulfide, given the formula of zinc oxide, ZnO. (a) CdS (b) Cd2S (c) CdS3 (d) Cd2S3 (e) Cd3S2 Answer:a

What is the ionic charge for the copper ion in Cu2CO3? (a) zero (b) 1+ (c) 2+ (d) 3+ (e) 4+ Answer:b

What is the formula for barium phosphate? (a) Ba3P2 (b) BaPO3 (c) BaPO4 (d) Ba3(PO4)2 (e) Ba2(PO4)3 Answer:d

What is the formula for zinc hydroxide? (a) Zn3OH (b) Zn(OH)2 (c) Zn(OH)3 (d) Zn2(OH)3 (e) Zn3(OH)2 Answe:b

What is the formula for dinitrogen tetraoxide? (a) N2O (b) N2O3 (c) N2O4 (d) N2O5 (e) N2O9 Answer:c

What is the formula for dinitrogen pentaoxide? (a) N2O (b) N2O3 (c) N2O4 (d) N2O5 (e) N2O9 Answer:d

What is the name of Br3O2 according to IUPAC nomenclature? (a) bromine heptaoxide (b) bromine octaoxide (c) tribromine heptaoxide (d) tribromine octaoxide (e) tribromine oxide Answer:d

What is the formula for hydrochloric acid? (a) HCl(aq) (b) HClO(aq) (c) HClO2(aq) (d) HClO3(aq) (e) HClO4(aq) Answer:a

What is the formula for hydroselenic acid? (a) HSe(aq) (b) H2Se(aq) (c) HSeO2(aq) (d) H2SeO3(aq) (e) H2SeO4(aq) Answer:b

********************************************************************* ******************** Chapter Eight, Chemical Reactions ***************

What is the term for the study of the composition and properties of matter? (a) alchemy (b) biochemistry (c) chemistry (d) science (e) none of the above Answer:c

hat is the term for the procedure of collecting data and recording observations under controlled conditions? (a) alchemy (b) chemistry (c) experiment (d) science (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the term for an investigation that entails performing an experiment, proposing a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating a theory or law? (a) alchemy (b) chemistry (c) science (d) scientific method (e) none of the above Answer:d

What four elements composed everything in nature according to the beliefs of the ancient Greeks? (a) air, earth, fire, and water (b) air, earth, salt, and water (c) air, ashes, fire, and water (d) smoke, earth, fire, and water (e) none of the above Answer:a

What book helped establish the scientific method by arguing that theories were no better than the experiments on which they were based? (a) Elementary Treatise on Chemistry (b) Methods of Chemical Research (c) Scientific Investigations of Gases (d) The Sceptical Chymist (e) none of the above Answer:d

Which of the following is a basic step in the scientific method? (a) perform an experiment and collect data (b) analyze experimental data and propose a hypothesis (c) test a hypothesis and state a theory or law (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the difference between a hypothesis and a scientific theory? (a) a hypothesis is a tentative proposal and a theory is a tested proposal (b) a theory is a tentative proposal and a hypothesis is a tested proposal (c) a hypothesis requires an experiment and a theory does not (d) a theory requires an experiment and a hypothesis does not (e) none of the above Answer:a

Which of the following is a specialty of chemistry? (b) biochemistry (c) environmental chemistry (d) organic chemistry (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:d

In which of the following industries does chemistry play an important role? (a) construction (b) electronics (c) paper (d) transportation (e) all of the above Answer:e

In a survey by the American Chemical Society, what percent of entering college students thought that chemistry is relevant to their daily lives? (a) less than 1% (b) 1% (c) 5% (d) 10% (e) more than 50% Answer:e

In a survey by the American Chemical Society, what percent of entering college students thought that chemistry is a difficult subject? (a) 1% (b) 5% (c) 10% (d) 83% (e) 100% Answer:d

Which of the following is a positive association with the study of chemistry? (a) chemistry topics are relevant to our daily lives (b) chemistry leads to career opportunities (c) chemistry has biomedical applications (d) chemistry benefits society (e) all of the above Answer:e

What subject is referred to as the central science? (a) biology (b) chemistry (c) geology (d) physics (e) none of the above Answer:b

What is the term for a shorthand representation using formulas and symbols to describe a chemical change? (a) chemical equation (b) chemical formula (c) chemical reaction (d) chemical symbol (e) none of the above Answer:a

What is the term for a digit that precedes a chemical formula in a balanced chemical equation? (a) coefficient (b) exponent (c) subscript (d) superscript (e) none of the above Answer:a

What term refers to a chemical reaction that absorbs heat energy? (a) endothermic (b) exothermic (c) isothermal (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:a

What term refers to a chemical reaction that releases heat energy? (a) endothermic (b) exothermic (c) isothermal (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:b

What is the term for a substance undergoing a chemical change? (a) active metal (b) catalyst (c) product (d) reactant (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the term for a type of reaction in which a more active element displaces a less active element from a solution or compound? (a) combination (b) decomposition (c) double replacement (d) neutralization (e) single replacement Answer:e

Which of the following elements occurs naturally as diatomic molecules? (a) chlorine gas (b) fluorine gas (c) nitrogen gas (d) oxygen gas (e) all of the above Answer:e

Which of the following formulas represents an element in its natural state? (a) H2 (b) N2 (c) O2 (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:d

Which of the following is not a general guideline for balancing an equation? (a) write correct formulas for reactants and products (b) begin balancing with the most complex formula (c) balance polyatomic ions as a single unit (d) check each reactant and product to verify the coefficients (e) if the equation is not balanced, change a subscript in a formula Answer:e

What is the coefficient of oxygen gas after balancing the following equation? __P(s) + __O2(g) _______ P2O5(s) (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 5 (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the coefficient of hydrogen gas after balancing the following equation? __N2(g) + __H2(g) _______ NH3(g) (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the coefficient of carbon dioxide after balancing the following equation?

. __KHCO3(s) _______ K2CO3(s) + __H2O(g) + __CO2(g) (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) none of the above Answer:a

What is the coefficient of oxygen gas after balancing the following equation? . __H2O2(l) __________ H2O(l) + __O2(g) (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) none of the above Answer:a

What is the coefficient of sodium metal after balancing the following equation?

__Na(s) + __H2O(l) ________ NaOH(aq) + __H2(g)

(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) none of the above Answer:b

Which of the following types of chemical reactions is illustrated below?

__AlCl3(aq) + __AgNO3(aq) ______Al(NO3)3(aq) + __AgCl(s)

(a) combination (b) decomposition (c) single replacement (d) double replacement (e) neutralization Answer:d

Which of the following types of chemical reactions is illustrated below?

__H2SO4(aq) + __NaOH(aq) _______ Na2SO4(aq) + __H2O(l)

(a) combination (b) decomposition (c) single replacement (d) double replacement (e) neutralization Answer:e

What is the formula of the predicted product from heating potassium metal and powdered phosphorus? (a) KP (b) KP3 (c) K3P (d) K2P3 (e) K3P2 Answer:c

What is the formula of the predicted product from heating cadmium metal and powdered sulfur? (a) CdS (b) Cd2S (c) CdS2 (d) Cd2S3 (e) Cd3S2 Answer:a

What are the predicted products from the following decomposition reaction? . Al(HCO3)3(s)____________

(a) Al, H2 and CO2 (b) Al, H2, and CO2 (c) Al2(CO3)3, H2 and CO2 (d) Al2(CO3)3, H2O and CO2 (e) Al2(CO3)3and H2O Answer:d

What are the predicted products from the following decomposition reaction? . Fe(HCO3)3 ______________

(a) Fe, H2O and CO2 (b) FeCO3, H2 and CO2 (c) FeCO3,H2O and CO2 (d) Fe2(CO3)3,H2O and CO2 (e) Fe2(CO3)3,H2 and CO2 Answer:d

What are the predicted products from the following decomposition reaction? . Zn(ClO3)3___________________

(a) Zn and CO2 (b) Zn, Cl2 and O2 (c) ZnCl2 and H2O (d) ZnCl2 and O2 (e) ZnCl2 and CO2 Answer:d

Which of the following metals reacts with dilute nitric acid? (a) Ag (b) Au (c) Co (d) Cu (e) Hg Answer:c

Which of the following metals does not react with sulfuric acid? (a) Mg (b) Mn (c) Ni (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:e

Which of the following metals does not react with water at room temperature? (a) Ba (b) Ca (c) K (d) Mg (e) Na Answer:d

What are the products from the following single-replacement reaction?

Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ___________

(a) Cu and ZnSO4 (b) Cu and ZnSO3 (c) CuO and ZnSO4 (d) CuO and ZnSO3 (e) no reaction Answer:a

What are the products from the following single-replacement reaction?

Al(s) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) _________________

(a) Pb and Al(NO3)3 (b) Pb and Al(NO2)3 (c) PbO and Al(NO3)3 (d) PbO and Al(NO2)3 (e) no reaction Answer:a

What are the products from the following single-replacement reaction?

Mg(s) + H2SO4(aq) _________________

(a) MgO and H2SO3 (b) MgO and H2S (c) MgSO4 and H2 (d) MgSO4 and H2O (e) no reaction Answer:c

Which of the following solid compounds is soluble in water? (a) CaCO3 (b) PbSO4 (c) AlPO4 (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:e

Which of the following solid compounds is insoluble in water? (a) Li2CO3 (b) AgC2H3O2 (c) Cu(NO3)2 (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:e

What are the products from the following double-replacement reaction?

AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) __________________

(a) Ag3N and NaClO3 (b) AgCl and NaNO2 (c) AgCl and NaNO3 (d) AgClO3 and NaNO2 (e) AgClO3 and NaNO3 Answer:c

What are the products from the following double-replacement reaction?

BaCl2(aq) + KSO4(aq) _________________

(a) BaS and KClO4 (b) BaSO3 and KCl (c) BaSO3 and KClO4 (d) BaSO4 and KCl (e) BaSO4 and KClO4 Answer:d

What are the products from the following double-replacement reaction?

AgNO3(aq) + Li3PO4(aq) ______________________

(a) Ag3P and LiNO3 (b) Ag3PO3 and LiNO2 (c) Ag3PO3 and LiNO3 (d) Ag3PO4 and LiNO2 (e) Ag3PO4 and LiNO3 Answer:e

********************************************************************** *****************Chapter Nine,The Mole Concept************************

What is the term for the list of the elements present in a compound and the percent by mass of each element? (a) compound composition (b) elemental composition (c) mass composition (d) mass ratio composition (e) percent composition Answer:e

What is the number of oxygen atoms that constitute a mass of 16.00 amu? (a) 1 (b) 8 (c) 16 (d) 6.02 x 10 23 (e) none of the above Answer:a

If F-19 is the only natural isotope of fluorine, what is the mass of one F atom and Avogadro's number of F atoms, respectively. (a) 19.00 amu and 19.00 grams (b) 19.00 grams and 19.00 amu (c) 19.00 amu and 6.02 x 1023amu (d) 19.00 amu and 6.02 x 1023 grams (e) 19.00 grams and 6.02 x 1023 grams Answer:a

Which of the following is equal to one mole of substance? (a) 6.02 x 1023 magnesium atoms, Mg (b) 6.02 x 1023 oxygen molecules, O (c) 6.02 x 1023 magnesium oxide formula units, MgO (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:d

How many methane molecules are in 0.500 mole of CH gas? (a) 1.20 x 1023 molecules (b) 1.20 x 1024 molecules (c) 3.01 x 1022 molecules (d) 3.01 x 1023 molecules (e) 3.01 x 1024 molecules Answer:d

How many moles of argon gas contain 7.52 x 1022 Ar atoms? (a) 0.0125 mol (b) 0.0801 mol (c) 0.125 mol (d) 0.801 mol (e) 1.25 mol Answer:c

How many moles of potassium nitrate contain 8.68 x 1020 KNO3 formula units? (a) 0.00144 mol (b) 0.0144 mol (c) 1.44 mol (d) 6.94 mol (e) 694 mol Answer:a

What is the molar mass of aspirin, C9H2O4? (a) 29.02 g/mol (b) 116.08 g/mol (c) 180.17 g/mol (d) 244.17 g/mol (e) 252.25 g/mol Answer:c

What is the molar mass of cholesterol, C27H45OH? (a) 30.03 g/mol (b) 386.73 g/mol (c) 431.78 g/mol (d) 432.79 g/mol (e) 448.79 g/mol Answer:b

What is the molar mass of aluminum chlorate, Al(ClO3)3? (a) 277.33 g/mol (b) 325.33 g/mol (c) 331.29 g/mol (d) 421.33 g/mol (e) 456.78 g/mol Answer:a

What is the molar mass of mercuric nitrate, Hg(NO3)2? (a) 246.60 g/mol (b) 310.60/mol (c) 324.61 g/mol (d) 380.65 g/mol (e) 525.20 g/mol Answer:c

What is the mass of 2.10 x 1021 atoms of copper, Cu? (a) 0.00349 g (b) 0.101 g (c) 0.222 g (d) 63.5 g (e) 831 g Answer:c

What is the mass in grams of a single formula unit of copper(I) sulfide, Cu2S? (a) 1.04 x 10 g (b) 1.66 x 10 g (c) 2.64 x 10 g (d) 3.79 x 10 g (e) 9.57 x 10 g Answer:c

How many carbon dioxide molecules are in 22.4 liters of CO2 at STP? (a) 1.20 x 1024 (b) 1.35 x 1025 (c) 1.81 x 1024 (d) 6.02 x 1023 (e) 2.69 x 1022 Answer:d

What is the volume of 2.75 x 1024 molecules of ammonia gas, NH3, at STP? (a) 0.00977 L (b) 0.204 L (c) 4.57 L (d) 4.90 L (e) 102 L Answer:e

What is the mass of 5.00 liters of oxygen gas, O, at STP? (a) 0.286 g (b) 3.50 g (c) 6.40 g (d) 7.14 g (e) 112 g Answer:d

What is the mass of 455 mL of ethane gas, C2H6, at STP? (a) 0.340 g (b) 0.611 g (c) 2.95 g (d) 10.2 g (e) 65.9 g Answer:b

What is the volume occupied by 0.750 g of nitrogen gas, N2, at STP? (a) 0.600 L (b) 0.938 L (c) 16.8 L (d) 37.3 L (e) 836 L Answer:a

What is the volume occupied by 11.0 g of propane gas, C3H2, at STP? (a) 0.250 L (b) 4.00 L (c) 5.59 L (d) 21.6 L (e) 89.6 L Answer:c

What is the density of fluorine gas, F2, at standard conditions? (a) 0.589 g/L (b) 0.848 g/L (c) 1.18 g/L (d) 1.70 g/L (e) 22.4 g/L Answer:d

What is the density of carbon monoxide gas, CO, at STP? (a) 0.714 g/L (b) 0.800 g/L (c) 1.25 g/L (d) 1.40 g/L (e) 22.4 g/L Answer:c

If the density of laughing gas is 1.96 g/L at STP, what is its molar mass? (a) 11.4 g/mol (b) 19.6 g/mol (c) 22.4 g/mol (d) 43.9 g/mol (e) 196 g/mol Answer:d

If 1.00 L of carbon disulfide at STP has a mass of 3.40 grams, what is its molar mass? (a) 3.40 g/mol (b) 6.59 g/mol (c) 22.4 g/mol (d) 76.2 g/mol (e) 340 g/mol Answer:d

The first inert gas compound to be synthesized was XePtF6. What is the percentage of fluorine in the compound? (a) 4.31% (b) 5.50% (c) 25.9% (d) 29.8% (e) 44.3% Answer:c

The formula for the illegal drug cocaine is C17H21NO4. What is the percentage of carbon in the compound? (a) 3.96% (b) 4.62% (c) 6.99% (d) 21.1% (e) 67.3% Answer:e

The formula for the illegal drug cocaine is C17H21NO4. What is the percentage of oxygen in the compound? (a) 4.62% (b) 5.27% (c) 6.99% (d) 21.1% (e) 67.3% Answer:d

An emerald gemstone is an impure form of the mineral beryl, Be3Al2Si16O12. What is the percentage of beryllium in the mineral? (a) 1.10% (b) 3.30% (c) 6.59% (d) 35.2% (e) 54.9% Answer:b

If 0.500 mol of copper combines with 0.250 mol of sulfur, what is the empirical formula of the copper sulfide product? (a) CuS (b) Cu2S (c) CuS2 (d) Cu5S5 (e) none of the above Answer:b

If 6.00 mol of cobalt combines with 9.00 mol of sulfur, what is the empirical formula of the cobalt sulfide product? (a) Co2S3 (b) Co3S2 (c) Co6S9 (d) Co9S6 (e) none of the above Answer:a

If 1.775 g of arsenic react with selenium to give 4.583 g of arsenic selenide, what is the empirical formula of the product? (a) AsSe (b) As2Se3 (c) As2Se5 (d) As3Se2 (e) As5Se2 Answer:b

Benzene has been used as a solvent for varnishes, waxes, and oils. In 1981 the EPA listed benzene as a carcinogen. What is the molecular formula of benzene if the empirical formula is C1H1 and the approximate molar mass is 78 g/mol? (a) C1H1 (b) C1H6 (c) C1H12 (d) C6H6 (e) C12H1 Answer:d

Galactose is found in milk sugar and is used for diagnosing liver function. What is the molecular formula of galactose if the empirical formula is C1H2O1 and the approximate molar mass is 180 g/mol? (a) C1H1O1 (b) C1H2O1 (c) C1H2O6 (d) C6H12O6 (e) C12H22O11 Answer:d

The insulating and packing material Styrofoam is a polymer of styrene. Find the molecular formula of styrene given its percent composition: 92.25% C, 7.75% H. The approximate molar mass of styrene is 104 g/mol. (a) C1H1 (b) C1H2 (c) C1H12 (d) C2H2 (e) C12H1 Answer:d

Which of the following represents 1 mole of diborane gas, B2H6? (a) 6.02 x 1023 diborane molecules (b) 27.6 g diborane (c) 22.4 L diborane gas at STP (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:d

Given a mole of marbles, which of the following is the best estimate of their total volume? (a) 1000 mL beaker (b) the New Orleans Superdome (c) the Grand Canyon (d) the Moon (e) the universe Answer:d

Given a mole of steel shotput balls, which of the following is the best estimate of their total mass? (a) a microgram (b) a kilogram (c) an automobile (d) the Earth (e) the universe Answer:d

One mole of aluminum has a volume of 9.99 cm3. Using X-ray diffraction, each aluminum atom is found to occupy a cubic volume that is 0.263 nm on a side. Calculate the experimental value for Avogadro's number (N). (a) 1.44 x 1023 (b) 1.82 x 1023 (c) 3.80 x 1023 (d) 5.49 x 1023 (e) 6.02 x 1023 Answer:d

********************************************************************* *******************Chapter Ten, STOICHIOMETRY************************

What principle states that equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain equal numbers of molecules? (a) Avogadro's theory (b) law of combining volumes (c) law of conservation of mass (d) law of constant composition (e) none of the above Answer:a

hat principle states the total mass of products from a chemical reaction must equal the sum of the masses of reactants? (a) Avogadro's theory (b) law of combining volumes (c) law of conservation of mass (d) law of constant composition (e) none of the above Answer:c

What term refers to a type of stoichiometry calculation that relates the masses of two substances according to a balanced chemical equation? (a) mass-mass problem (b) mass-volume problem (c) mole-mole problem (d) volume-volume problem (e) none of the above Answer:a

What is the term for the amount of product calculated to be obtained from a given amount of reactant? (a) actual yield (b) percent yield (c) stoichiometric yield (d) theoretical yield (e) none of the above Answer:d

ow many moles of oxygen gas react with 2 moles of hydrogen gas according to the following equation? . spark __H2(g) + __O2(g) ________ H2O(g)

(a) 1 mol (b) 2 mol (c) 3 mol (d) 4 mol (e) none of the above Answer:a

How many moles of oxygen gas react with 2 moles of carbon monoxide gas according to the following equation?

__CO(g) + __O2(g) _______ CO2(g)

(a) 1 mol (b) 2 mol (c) 3 mol (d) 4 mol (e) none of the above Answer:a

How many moles of propane, CH, react to produce 4 moles of steam, HO, according to the following equation?

. spark __ C3H8(g) + __O2(g) ________ CO2(g) + __H2O(g)

(a) 1 mol (b) 3 mol (c) 4 mol (d) 5 mol (e) none of the above Answer:a

In an experiment 3.270 g of zinc reacts with 0.800 g of oxygen gas. Using the conservation of mass law, predict the mass of product.

. __Zn(s) + __O2(g) _______ ZnO(s)

(a) 2.035 g (b) 2.470 g (c) 4.070 g (d) 4.870 g (e) 7.340 g Answer:c

In an experiment 1.200 g of carbon reacts with 6.414 g of powdered sulfur. Using the conservation of mass law, predict the mass of product.

. __C(s) + __S(s) ________ CS2(g)

(a) 2.007 g (b) 4.407 g (c) 5.214 g (d) 7.614 g (e) 14.028 g Answer:d

In an experiment 0.520 g of chromium metal reacts with 3.807 g of iodine vapor. Using the conservation of mass law, predict the mass of product.

. __Cr(s) + __I2(g) _______ CrI3(s)

(a) 1.644 g (b) 3.287 g (c) 4.327 g (d) 8.654 g (e) 12.461 g Answer:c

If 5.585 g of metallic iron react to produce 8.792 g of iron sulfide, what is the predicted mass of reacting sulfur?

. __Fe(s) + __S(s) ________FeS(s)

(a) 1.604 g (b) 3.207 g (c) 5.585 g (d) 8.792 g (e) 14.377 g Answer:b

How many moles of nitrogen dioxide gas are produced from the reaction of 1.00 mol of nitrogen monoxide?

NO(g) + __O2(g) ________ NO2(g) (a) 0.250 mol (b) 0.500 mol (c) 1.00 mol (d) 2.00 mol (e) none of the above Answer:c

How many moles of water are produced from 2.40 mol of pentane, CH? . spark __C5H12 (g) + __O2(g) __________ CO2(g) + __H2O(g)

(a) 0.400 mol (b) 2.40 mol (c) 12.0 mol (d) 14.4 mol (e) 19.2 mol Answer:d

How many moles of oxygen gas must react with CH to yield 2.40 mol water? . spark __C5H12 (g) + __O2(g) ___________ CO2(g) + __H2O(g)

(a) 0.300 mol (b) 0.400 mol (c) 1.80 mol (d) 3.20 mol (e) 14.4 mol Answer:d

Classify the following type of stoichiometry problem: How many grams of zinc must react with an excess volume of hydrochloric acid to yield 0.500 g of zinc chloride? (a) mass-mass problem (b) mass-volume problem (c) volume-volume problem (d) mole-mole problem (e) none of the above Answer:a

Classify the following type of stoichiometry problem: How many grams of aluminum must react with an excess volume of nitric acid to yield 0.500 g of aluminum nitrate? (a) mass-mass problem (b) mass-volume problem (c) volume-volume problem (d) mole-mole problem (e) none of the above Answer:a

Classify the following type of stoichiometry problem: How many grams of cobalt must react with an excess volume of hydrochloric acid to produce 25.0 mL of hydrogen gas? (a) mass-mass problem (b) mass-volume problem (c) volume-volume problem (d) mole-mole problem (e) none of the above Answer:b

Classify the following type of stoichiometry problem: How many grams of tin must react with an excess volume of nitric acid to produce 50.0 mL of hydrogen gas? (a) mass-mass problem (b) mass-volume problem (c) volume-volume problem (d) mole-mole problem (e) none of the above Answer:b

Classify the following type of stoichiometry problem: How many milliliters of hydrogen gas react with an excess mass of chlorine gas to give 250 mL of hydrogen chloride? (a) mass-mass problem (b) mass-volume problem (c) volume-volume problem (d) mole-mole problem (e) none of the above Answer:c

Which of the following steps is necessary to solve a mass-mass stoichiometry problem? (a) write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction (b) calculate the moles of known substance given its mass (c) convert the moles of known substance into moles of unknown (d) calculate the mass of the unknown substance (e) all of the above Answer:e

Which of the following steps is not necessary to solve a volume-volume stoichiometry problem? (a) write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction (b) calculate the moles of known gas given its volume (c) convert the volume of known gas to the volume of unknown gas (d) determine the volume of known gas (e) determine the volume of unknown gas Answer:b

Calculate the mass of insoluble lead(II) iodide (461.0 g/mol) produced from the reaction of 0.830 g of potassium iodide (166.00 g/mol).

__Pb(NO3)2(aq) + __KI(s) _______PbI2(s) + __KNO3(aq)

(a) 0.149 g (b) 0.598 g (c) 1.15 g (d) 2.31 g (e) 4.61 g Answer:c

What mass of potassium iodide (166.00 g/mol) must react to yield 0.500 g of lead(II) iodide (461.0 g/mol) precipitate?

__Pb(NO3)2(aq) + __KI(s) _______PbI2(s) + __KNO3(aq)

(a) 0.0900 g (b) 0.180 g (c) 0.360 g (d) 0.694 g (e) 2.78 g Answer:c

Calculate the mass of aluminum oxide (101.96 g/mol) produced from the reaction of 3.59 g of iron(II) oxide (71.85 g/mol). . __FeO(l) + __Al(l) ________Fe(l) + __Al2O3(l)

(a) 0.842 g (b) 1.70 g (c) 5.10 g (d) 7.58 g (e) 15.3 g Answer:b

How many grams of aluminum must react to give 11.1 g of manganese metal? . __MnO2(l) + __Al(l) ________Mn(l) + __Al2O3(l)

(a) 3.64 g (b) 4.09 g (c) 5.45 g (d) 7.27 g (e) 8.18 g Answer:d

Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide (at STP) evolved by heating 2.50 g of potassium hydrogen carbonate (100.12 g/mol). . __KHCO3(s) ________K2CO3(s) + __H2O(l) + __CO2(g)

(a) 0.280 L (b) 0.559 L (c) 1.12 L (d) 5.60 L (e) 22.3 L Answer:a

What volume of oxygen gas must react to produce 24.0 mL of sulfur trioxide? (Assume temperature and pressure remain constant.) .

__SO2(g) + __O2(g) _______________ SO3(g)

(a) 8.00 mL (b) 12.0 mL (c) 24.0 mL (d) 36.0 mL (e) 48.0 mL Answer:b

What volume of hydrogen must react to produce 0.600 L of ammonia? (Assume temperature and pressure remain constant.) . __N2(g) + __H2(g) ________________ NH3(g)

(a) 0.300 L (b) 0.400 L (c) 0.600 L (d) 0.900 L (e) 1.80 L Answer:d

Calculate the volume of oxygen gas that reacts with 5.00 L of methane, CH. (Assume temperature and pressure remain constant.) . spark __ CH4(g) + __O2(g) __________ CO2(g) + __H2O(g)

(a) 1.25 L (b) 2.50 L (c) 5.00 L (d) 10.0 L (e) 20.0 L Answer:d

What volume of methane, CH, must react to give 30.0 mL of hydrogen gas? (Assume temperature and pressure remain constant.) . __ CH4(g) + __O2(g)______________ CO2(g) + __H2O(g)

(a) 10.0 mL (b) 15.0 mL (c) 30.0 mL (d) 60.0 mL (e) 90.0 mL Answer:a

If 5.00 mol of sodium react with 7.50 mol of chlorine according to the following equation, how many moles of sodium chloride are produced?

Na(s) + Cl2(g) ____________ NaCl(s)

(a) 2.50 mol (b) 3.75 mol (c) 5.00 mol (d) 10.0 mol (e) 15.0 mol Answer:c

If 1.00 mol of cobalt reacts with 1.00 mol of oxygen according to the following equation, how many moles of cobalt(III) oxide are produced?

Co(s) + O2(g) ______________ Co2O3(s)

(a) 0.500 mol (b) 0.667 mol (c) 1.00 mol (d) 1.50 mol (e) 2.00 mol Answer:a

f 0.654 g of zinc react with 0.500 g of sulfur according to the following equation, how many grams of zinc sulfide are produced?

Zn(s) + S(s) ___________ ZnS(s)

(a) 0.544 g (b) 0.975 g (c) 1.15 g (d) 1.52 g (e) 2.50 g Answer:b

If 40.0 L of ammonia gas react with 60.0 L of oxygen gas , what is the volume of nitrogen monoxide gas produced (assume constant conditions)?

NH3(g) + O2(g) ____________ NO(g) + H2O(g)

(a) 32.0 L (b) 40.0 L (c) 48.0 L (d) 60.0 L (e) 100.0 L Answer:b

Starting with 0.657 g of lead(II) nitrate, a student collects 0.925 g of precipitate. If the calculated mass of precipitate is 0.914 g, what is the percent yield? (a) 71.0% (b) 71.9% (c) 98.8% (d) 101% (e) 139% Answer:d

Starting with 1.560 g of salicylic acid, a student prepares 1.750 grams of aspirin. If the calculated mass of aspirin is 1.880 grams, what is the percent yield? (a) 83% (b) 89.1% (c) 93.1% (d) 107% (e) 121% Answer:c

The decomposition of 1.500 g of potassium chlorate evolved 405 mL of oxygen gas. If the calculated volume of oxygen gas is 411 mL, what is the percent yield? (a) 65.7% (b) 67.3% (c) 98.5% (d) 101% (e) 148% Answer:c

In 1811 Amedeo Avogadro explained the law of combining volumes by stating that equal volumes of gas, at the same temperature and pressure, contain which of the following? (a) Avogadro's number of molecules (b) Avogadro's number of molecules times two (c) 22,400 molecules (d) 44,800 molecules (e) the same number of molecules Answer:e

How many molar masses of water are produced from 2 molar masses (MM) of hydrogen gas according to the following equation? . spark __ H2(g) + __O2(g) __________ H2O(g) (a) 1 MM (b) 2 MM (c) 3 MM (d) 4 MM (e) none of the above Answer:b

Calculate the mass of iron produced from the reaction of 225 g of iron(III) oxide according to the following reaction. . __Fe2O3(l) + __CO(g) __________Fe(l) + __CO2(g)

(a) 39.3 g (b) 78.7 g (c) 157 g (d) 322 g (e) 1290 g Answer:c

Calculate the mass of water produced from 11.2 L of ammonia at STP according to the following reaction. . __NH3(g) + __O2(g) ___________ NO(g) + __H2O(g)

(a) 6.00 g (b) 13.5 g (c) 24.0 g (d) 27.0 g (e) 54.0 g Answer:b

What volume of oxygen must react to produce 20.0 L of nitrogen monoxide? (Assume constant conditions.) . __NH3(g) + __O2(g) ________________ NO(g) + __H2O(g)

(a) 16.0 L (b) 20.0 L (c) 22.4 L (d) 25.0 L (e) 40.0 L Answer:d

Which of the following are found in an impure mixture of iron ore? (a) pig iron and coke (b) pig iron and limestone (c) pig iron and slag (d) hematite and magnetite (e) none of the above Answer:d

What is the term for the impurities such as CaSiO3 that are produced in the process of manufacturing steel and float on the molten iron? (a) hematite (b) pig iron (c) slag (d) sulfate (e) none of the above Answer:c

What is the difference between iron and steel? (a) Iron is an element and steel is an alloy containing aluminum. (b) Iron is an element and steel is an alloy containing calcium. (c) Iron is an element and steel is an alloy containing magnesium. (d) Iron is an element and steel is an alloy containing manganese. (e) Iron is an element and steel is an alloy containing silicon. Answer:d

********************************************************************** *****************CHAPTER ELEVEN, GASEOUS STATE************************

What is the theoretical temperature at which the kinetic energy of a gas is zero? (a) absolute zero (b) -100C (c) -273F (d) -273 K (e) none of the above Answer:a

Which of the following instruments measures atmospheric pressure? (a) aerometer (b) barometer (c) manometer (d) spectrophotometer (e) none of the above Answer:b

What is the term for two variables that behave in the same way? (a) conversely proportional (b) directly proportional (c) inversely proportional (d) theoretically proportional (e) none of the above Answer:b

What is the term for two variables that behave in the opposite way? (a) conversely proportional (b) directly proportional (c) inversely proportional (d) theoretically proportional (e) none of the above Answer:c

Which of the following is a unit of pressure equal to 1 mm Hg? (a) 1 atm (b) 1 kPa (c) 1 psi (d) 1 torr (e) none of the above Answer:d

Which of the following does not express standard atmospheric pressure? (a) 29.9 in. Hg (b) 760 cm Hg (c) 760 torr (d) 14.7 psi (e) 101 kPa Answer:b

If a steel scuba tank contains compressed air at 2250 psi, what is the pressure in atmospheres? (a) 2.96 atm (b) 29.6 atm (c) 75.3 atm (d) 153 atm (e) 3.31 x 10 atm Answer:d

If a pressure gauge reads 15 torr, what is the pressure in atmospheres? (a) 0.020 atm (b) 0.20 atm (c) 15 atm (d) 1100 atm (e) 11,000 atm Answer:a

If a vacuum pump reduces air pressure to 1.0 x 10-6 atm, what is the pressure in millimeters of mercury? (a) 1.3 x 10-8 mm Hg (b) 1.3 x 10-7 mm Hg (c) 1.0 x 10-6 mm Hg (d) 7.6 x 10-5 mm Hg (e) 7.6 x 10-4 mm Hg Answer:e

If a barometer reads 76.5 cm Hg, what is the pressure expressed in torr? (a) 0.765 torr (b) 7.65 torr (c) 76.5 torr (d) 765 torr (e) 7650 torr Answer:d

Which of the following changes increases the pressure in a gaseous system? (a) increasing the volume (b) decreasing the temperature (c) decreasing the number of gas molecules (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:e

Which of the following changes decreases the pressure in a gaseous system? (a) increasing the volume (b) increasing the temperature (c) increasing the number of gas molecules (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:a

A sample of neon gas at 1.20 atm compresses from 250 mL to 125 mL. If the temperature remains constant, what is the final pressure? (a) 0.600 atm (b) 1.00 atm (c) 1.20 atm (d) 2.40 atm (e) none of the above Answer:d

A 5.00 L volume of methane gas is cooled from 300 K to 150 K. If the pressure remains constant, what is the final volume? (a) 2.50 L (b) 4.55 L (c) 5.00 L (d) 5.50 L (e) 10.0 L Answer:a

The pressure of sulfur trioxide gas at 25C increases from 515 torr to 1025 torr. What is the final Celsius temperature if the volume remains constant? (a) -123C (b) 50C (c) 150C (d) 320C (e) 593C Answer:d

If 50.0 cm of xenon gas is at 350 mm Hg and -123C, what is the volume at STP? (a) 41.9 cm3 (b) 49.4 cm3 (c) 50.6 cm3 (d) 54.9 cm3 (e) 59.7 cm3 Answer:a

If 2.50 L of hydrogen gas is collected over water at 40C and 767 mm Hg, what is the volume of dry gas at standard conditions? The vapor pressure of water is 55.3 mm Hg at 40C. (a) 2.04 L (b) 2.20 L (c) 2.68 L (d) 2.89 L (e) 3.06 L Answer:a

If the temperature decreases, what happens to the vapor pressure? (a) increases (b) decreases (c) remains constant (d) unpredictable (e) none of the above Answer:b

A beaker of alcohol at 20C is placed under a bell-jar and a vacuum pump is used to evacuate the air. Why does the alcohol begin to boil? (a) the vapor pressure increases (b) the vapor pressure decreases (c) air is released from the alcohol (d) the atmospheric pressure is reduced (e) none of the above Answer:d

If oxygen gas is collected over water at 60C and 1.10 atm, what is the partial pressure of the O? The vapor pressure of water is 0.197 atm at 60C. (a) 0.197 atm (b) 0.217 atm (c) 0.90 atm (d) 1.10 atm (e) 1.30 atm Answer:c

Which of the following is not true according to the kinetic theory of gases? (a) molecules occupy negligible volume (b) molecules move randomly (c) molecules are attracted to one another (d) molecules have elastic collisions (e) molecules have a kinetic energy proportional to temperature Answer:c

Which of the following is not true according to the kinetic theory of gases? (a) molecules occupy a negligible volume (b) molecules move in straight line paths (c) molecules are not attracted to one another (d) molecules collide without losing energy (e) molecules in the same container all have the same velocity Answer:e

At the same temperature, which of the following noble gases contains atoms with the slowest average velocity? (a) argon (b) helium (c) krypton (d) neon (e) xenon Answer:e

Which of the following is not true according to the kinetic theory of gases? (a) molecules occupy a negligible volume (b) molecules move in straight line paths (c) molecules are not attracted to one another (d) molecules collide without losing energy (e) molecules in the same container all have the same velocity Answer:e

At the same temperature, which of the following noble gases contains atoms with the slowest average velocity? (a) argon (b) helium (c) krypton (d) neon (e) xenon Answer:e

At the same temperature, which of the following gas molecules has the fastest average velocity? (a) hydrogen, H2 (b) nitrogen, N2 (c) oxygen, O2 (d) fluorine, F2 (e) The average velocity for each gas molecule is the same. Answer:a

How many moles of helium occupy a volume of 5.00 L at 500 K and 5.00 atm? (R = 0.0821 atm . L/mol . K) (a) 0.609 mol (b) 1.64 mol (c) 5.00 mol (d) 25.0 mol (e) 6090 mol Answer:a

If a nitrogen gas sample occupies a volume of 2.55 L at 22C and 0.860 atm, what is the mass of the N2 gas? (R = 0.0821 atm . L/mol . K) (a) 0.394 g (b) 1.27 g (c) 2.54 g (d) 5.13 g (e) 34.0 g Answer:c

An unknown gas occupies a volume of 4.75 L at 1500 K and 5.00 atm. If the mass is 5.45 g, what is the molar mass of the gas? (R = 0.0821 atm . L/mol . K) (a) 21.5 g/mol (b) 23.8 g/mol (c) 28.3 g/mol (d) 141 g/mol (e) 344 g/mol Answer:c

An unknown gas occupies a volume of 1.50 L at 21C and 0.950 atm. If the mass is 2.01 g, what is the molar mass of the gas? (R = 0.0821 atm . L/mol . K) (a) 19.0 g/mol (b) 30.7 g/mol (c) 34.0 g/mol (d) 69.1 g/mol (e) 76.6 g/mol Answer:c

If the density of an unknown gas is 1.95 g/L at STP, what is the molar mass of the gas? (R = 0.0821 atm . L/mol . K) (a) 11.4 g/mol (b) 22.4 g/mol (c) 23.8 g/mol (d) 43.7 g/mol (e) 139 g/mol Answer:d

Which of the following explains why the pressure of a gas increases when the temperature increases (volume remaining constant)? (a) The kinetic energy of gas molecules increases. (b) The velocity of gas molecules increases. (c) The collision frequency of gas molecules increases. (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:d

Gas pressure is directly proportional to the number of gas molecules. What happens to the pressure if the number of molecules doubles? (a) pressure increases by a factor of two (b) pressure increases by a factor of four (c) pressure decreases by a factor of two (d) pressure decreases by a factor of four (e) none of the above Answer:a

According to Dalton's law, the pressure exerted by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases equals: (a) the pressure of hydrogen + the pressure of oxygen (b) the pressure of hydrogen - the pressure of oxygen (c) the pressure of hydrogen x the pressure of oxygen (d) the pressure of hydrogen /the pressure of oxygen (e) none of the above Answer:a

A 0.233-g sample of an unknown metal is dropped into water and reacts to produce 75.0 mL of dry hydrogen gas at 25C and 739 mm Hg. What is the unknown metal (X)?

2 X(s) + 2 H2O(l) __________ 2 X(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)

(a) Ca (b) K (c) Na (d) Sr (e) Zn Answer:b

Which of the following gases is released into the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels? (a) CH4 (b) CO2 (c) NO2 (d) O3 (e) SO2 Answer:b

****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** CHAPTER 12,

What is the term for the valence electrons in a molecule that are shared? (a) bonding electrons (b) core electrons (c) kernel electrons (d) nonbonding electrons (e) none of the above Answer:a

What is the term for a molecule composed of two nonmetal atoms held together by a covalent bond? (a) diatomic molecule (b) nonmetal molecule (c) nonpolar molecule (d) polar molecule (e) none of the above Answer:a

What is the term for the smallest representative unit in a compound held together by ionic bonds? (a) atom (b) formula unit (c) molecule (d) monoatomic ion (e) polyatomic ion Answer:b

What is the term for a chemical bond characterized by the attraction between a cation and anion? (a) coordinate covalent bond (b) ionic bond (c) nonpolar covalent bond (d) polar covalent bond (e) none of the above Answer:b

What type of bond is characterized by sharing one pair of electrons? (a) double bond (b) electrovalent bond (c) ionic bond (d) single bond (e) none of the above Answer:d

What type of chemical bond results from the attraction between a metal cation and a nonmetal anion? (a) covalent bond (b) ionic bond (c) metallic bond (d) valence bond (e) none of the above Answer:b

Which noble gas is isoelectronic with a lithium ion? (a) helium (b) neon (c) argon (d) krypton (e) xenon Answer:a

Which of the following cations is isoelectronic with krypton? (a) potassium ion (b) calcium ion (c) scandium ion (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:e

Which of the following anions is isoelectronic with krypton? (a) chloride ion (b) sulfide ion (c) phosphide ion (d) all of the above (e) none of the above Answer:e

How many valence electrons are in an oxygen atom and an oxide ion? (a) 2 and 8, respectively (b) 6 and 8, respectively (c) 8 and 6, respectively (d) 8 and 10, respectively (e) none of the above Answer:b

How many valence electrons are in a chlorine atom and a chloride ion? (a) 1 and 8, respectively (b) 7 and 8, respectively (c) 8 and 7, respectively (d) 17 and 18, respectively (e) none of the above Answer:b

How many valence electrons are in a phosphorus atom and a phosphide ion? (a) 3 and 8, respectively (b) 5 and 8, respectively (c) 8 and 5, respectively (d) 15 and 18, respectively (e) none of the above Answer:b

Potassium metal and fluorine gas react to form potassium fluoride. Which of the following statements is true? (a) The potassium atoms lose electrons and fluorine atoms gain electrons. (b) The potassium atom is smaller in radius than the potassium ion. (c) The fluorine atom is larger in radius than the fluoride ion. (d) The potassium ion and fluoride bond by sharing electrons. (e) all of the above Answer:a

Nitrogen gas and oxygen gas react to form nitrogen dioxide. Which of the following statements is true? (a) Nitrogen transfers valence electrons to oxygen atoms. (b) The bonding electrons are distributed about the entire molecule. (c) The bond length is greater than the sum of the two atomic radii. (d) The smallest representative particle is a formula unit. (e) all of the above Answer:b

Draw the electron dot formula for chloroform, CHCl3. How many pairs of nonbonding electrons are in one molecule of chloroform? (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 9 (e) 13 Answer:d

Draw the electron dot formula for fluorine, F2, and state the type of bond in one molecule. (a) 1 single bond (b) 1 double bond (c) 1 triple bond (d) 3 single bonds (e) none of the above Answer:a

Draw the electron dot formula for oxygen, O2, and state the type of bond in one molecule. (a) 1 single bond (b) 1 double bond (c) 1 triple bond (d) 2 single bonds (e) none of the above Answer:b

Draw the electron dot formula for nitrogen, N2, and state the type of bond in one molecule. (a) 1 single bond (b) 1 double bond (c) 1 triple bond (d) 3 single bonds (e) none of the above Answer:c

Draw the electron dot formula for selenium dioxide, SeO2, and state the type of bonds in one molecule. (a) 2 single bonds (b) 2 double bonds (c) 1 single bond and 1 double bond (d) 1 single bond and 1 triple bond (e) 1 double bond and 1 triple bond Answer:c

Draw the electron dot formula for selenium dioxide, SeO2, and state the type of bonds in one molecule. (a) 2 single bonds (b) 2 double bonds (c) 1 single bond and 1 double bond (d) 1 single bond and 1 triple bond (e) 1 double bond and 1 triple bond Answer:c

Draw the electron dot formula for silicon disulfide, SiS2, and state the type of bonds in one molecule. (a) 2 single bonds (b) 2 double bonds (c) 2 triple bonds (d) 1 single bond and 1 double bond (e) 1 double bond and 1 triple bond Answer:b

Draw the electron dot formula for the hydroxide ion, OH-. How many pairs of nonbonding electrons are in one hydroxide ion? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) none of the above Answer:c

Draw the electron dot formula for the sulfite ion, SO3-2, and state the type of bonds in one polyatomic ion. (a) 1 single bond and 2 double bonds (b) 2 single bonds and 1 double bond (c) 2 single bonds and 1 triple bond (d) 3 single bonds (e) none of the above Answer:d

Which of the following is a general trend for the electronegativity of elements in the periodic table? (a) increases from left to right; increases from bottom to top (b) increases from left to right; decreases from bottom to top (c) decreases from left to right; increases from bottom to top (d) decreases from left to right; decreases from bottom to top (e) none of the above Answer:a

According to the general trends in the periodic table, which of the following is the most electronegative element? (a) Ar (b) Cl (c) S (d) Se (e) Br Answer:b

Given the electronegativity values for hydrogen (2.1) and fluorine (4.0), what is the bond polarity in hydrogen fluoride, HF? (a) -1.9 (b) 1.9 (c) 3.1 (d) 6.1 (e) -6.1 Answer:b

Iodine has an electronegativity value of 2.5. Given the electronegativity of C, N, O, and P (2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 2.1, respectively), predict which of the following is a nonpolar molecule. (a) CI4 (b) NI3 (c) IO2 (d) PI3 (e) none of the above Answer:a

What is the molecular shape of a water, H2O, molecule? (a) angular (b) linear (c) tetrahedral (d) trigonal (e) none of the above Answer:a

Which of the following is not always true for the reaction of a metal atom and a nonmetal atoms? (a) Valence electrons are transferred. (b) The radius of the metal atom is less than the nonmetal. (c) A formula unit is produced. (d) Energy is released. (e) all of the above Answer:b



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